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Moisture , Clouds & Precipitation


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Condensation
the process by which molecules of water vapor in the air become liquid water
Compression
It is a stress that squeezes or shortens material such as rock. In places where rock is less rigid, compression creates folds. In places where the rock is more rigid, compression can create faults.
Hail, hailstones
Frozen water droplets that grow larger while being held inside a cloud by strong up-drafts.
Latent Heat
The stored energy released when water changes form.
Precipitation fog
Fog formed when rain evaporates as it fall through a layer of cold air.
Saturation
The maximum quantity of water vapor that the air can hold at any given temperature.
Stable air
Air that resists vertical displacement.
Sublimation
The conversion of a solid directly to a gas without passing through the liquid state.
Supersaturation
The condition of being more highly concentrated than is normally possible under given temperature & pressure conditions.
Stratus
Sheets or layers of clouds that cover much or all of the sky.
Relative Humidity
The link between the air's temperature and the amount of water vapor it contains
Cloud
A form of condensation best described as a dense concentration of suspended water droplets or tiny ice crystals.
Hygrometer
An instrument used to measure relative humidity.
Upslope fog
Fog created when air moves up a slope and cool adiabatically.
Steam fog
Fog having the appearance of steam, produced by evaporation from a warm water surface into the cool air above.
Snow
Ice crystals that leave the cloud and don't melt before hitting the earth.
Localized convection lifting
Unequal surface heating that causes localized pockets of air to rise because of their buoyancy.
Glaze
A coating of ice on objects that formed when super-cooled rain freezes on contact.
Orographic lifting
Mountains acting as barriers to the flow of air, forcing the air to ascend.
Rime
A thin coating of ice on objects produced when supercooled fog droplets freeze on contact.
Unstable air
Air that does not resist vertical displacement.
Sleet
A mixture of rain and melting snow (UK) or ice pellets (North America).
Psychrometer
A device consisting of two thermometers, wet and dry bulb, that is rapidly whirled and, with the use of tables, yields the relative humidity and dew point.
Rain
Water falling from a cloud and reaching the ground. Can become acidic (pH 5.65 and know as Carbolic Acid) due to CO₂ in the atmosphere dissolving into it.
Humidity
The amount of water vapor in the air
Radiation fog
Fog resulting from radiation heat loss of the earth