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Level 90

Environmental Change II

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the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between living cells and their environment
As it is burned, the energy released by the chemical bonds is transferred to ADP (adenosine diphosphate)
heterotroph (consumer)
consumers, fed by others, eat other organisms to survive. Burn glucose.
Water Cycle
the continual movement of water among Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and land surface through evaporation, condensation, and precipitation
Run Off
water that flows over the ground surface rather than soaking into the ground
ground water
rainwater stored in rocks and the soil which can flow back to the river or the sea through permeable rock
water table
Top of the water layer under the ground is called this.
big saturated area under water
Evaporation of water from the leaves of a plant
carbon cycle
animals, plants, and other photosynthesizing organisms play important roles in the _______
government controls production of goods and individulas have little economic power
nitrogen cycle
ammonification is the first stage in the _______
plants take up nitrogen as this as well.
nitrogen fixation
The process by which bacteria convert nitrogen gas into ammonia
nitrifying bacteria
soil bacteria that produces compounds called nitrates and nitrites, which are made up of nitrogen and oxygen
Phosphorous is another essential nutrient, commonly found in mineral form as
natural history
consisted mostly of collecting stuff
place where an organism lives.
the functional role an organisms plays in the ecosystem
photosynthetic organisms
fed by others, heterotrophic organisms eat other organisms to survive
trophic levels
many different levels where energy can pass thru.
eats herbivores, incorporate the energy of the prey
gross primary production (GPP)
The solar energy assimilated by plants
net primary production (NPP)
total dry weight of new biomass added
Predator/Prey ratio
Many lines of circumstantial evidence that at least some dinosaurs were warm blooded
Clements claimed that communities were not chance associations, but discrete and functional units, with clear boundaries. saw communities as this.
The replacement of one community by another at a single place over a period of time
primary succession
if the land has never had living organisms on it, its progression to its climax community is called _______
secondary succession
if the land had previously been occupied with living organisms, it is called _______
r selection
are adapted to environments that are unstable, ephemeral (disturbed soil, drying pools)
k selection
species are adapted to environments that are stable, or that change in predictable ways (seasonal)
predator-prey cycles
known to the natural theologians
History of
emergent properties
Life may also have been carried to Earth from other planets
prokaryote (prokaryotic cell)
Bacteria and Archaea are the most primitive cell type
plasticlike layer of the Earth's surface below the lithosphere
A type of consumer that kills and eats other animals
red beds
terrestrial sediments form this
the path that a stream follows.
formation of new species
mass extinction
The history of life on Earth has been shaped by this
uniformitarianism (on test for sure)
Forces of nature act the same way today as they have always been. Implies that it is all about gradual and continuous change. They were correct that the history of life has been punctuate…
reproductive isolation
speciation ends with this
Conspicuous consumption
An idea by Thorstein Veblen (sociologist) that people feel the need to display their status by ostentatiously consuming goods and services materialism and affluenza
reshuffling of genes during reproduction creates new adaptive combinations of genes
natural selection
New environment selects for slightly different traits
A necessary aspect of human existence
Commodity chain
Series of links connecting the many places of production and distribution and resulting in the commodity and is meant to exchange on the market
species (biological species concept)
species are populations of organisms that are reproductively isolated from other similar populations
consumer market
all the individuals and houses that want goods and services for personal consumption or use
Oort Cloud
cloud of comets far out beyond the orbit of Pluto, at the outer edge of the solar system
Planet X
mysterious tenth planet, out beyond Pluto
companion star