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Level 85

Geomorphological Processes II


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Mass wasting (mass movement):
applies to all downward movements of materials propelled and controlled by gravity
Landslide:
a large amount of material falling simultaneously; a sudden rapid movement of a cohesive mass of regolith or bedrock that is not saturated with moisture. Slides occur in translational or rotational forms. Translational slides inv…
Stream transport:
competence- a streams ability to move particles of specific size, function of stream velocity; capacity- the total possible load that a stream can transport. Four processes transport eroded materials: solution, suspension, traction and saltation. Solu…
Meandering:
where slopes are gradual, stream channels assume a sinuous (snakelike) form weaving across the landscape; can form into an oxbow lake if cut off
Streamflow management:
The key to measuring is to measure streamflow- the height and discharge of a stream. Hydrographs show stream discharge over time for a specific place
Sand dunes:
migrate in the direction of effective, sand-transporting winds- gently sloping windward side and a more steeply sloped slipface on the leeward side. Dunes that move actively are called free dunes and reflect most dynamically…
Tides:
complex daily oscillations in sea level, ranging worldwide from barely noticeable to several meters. Tides flood (rise) and ebb (fall)- the daily migration of the shoreline landward and seaward causes significant changes that affect sedi…
Waves-
wind friction on the surface of the ocean that generates undulations of water; travels in wave trains, or groups of waves. Regular patterns of smooth, rounded waves are swells (mature undulations of the open oce…
What is process geomorphology
the study of the processes of earths shape
Atmosphere
This is a mixture of gases that surrounds Earth. In addition to containing the oxygen you need to breathe, it protects you from the sun's damaging rays and is always changing.
Morphology
shape
Morphodynamics
the change in shape
Negative feedback
A process that causes an outcome that ends up slowing or stopping the original process
Positive feedback
A process that causes an outcome that ends up speeding up the original process
Size of a boulder
25.6 cm or larger
6.5-25 cm
Size of a cobble
Subsurface geomorphology
Studying the shape of older surface features that have since been covered up
Major aspets of morphodynamics
Topography and fluid dynamics (aka land and processes)
Uniform
Change in space (x, y, z)
Steady
Change in time (t)
Scale
A drawing showing measurements that help you estimate actual distances
How disequilibrium happens
Something is at equilibrium for an extended period of time until a TRIGGER set it over its THRESHOLD sending it into DISEQUILIBRIUM, which is relatively shorter.
Static Equilibrium
Types of Equilibrium
Steady-State Equilibrium
Graphed show oscillations up and down along a horizontal line
Height
vertical distance from base to height
biotic factor
living organisms
Relief
The difference between the elevations of two features
Hypsometry
The distribution, as percentage, of elevations per area
Uplift
When areas of rock move slowly upwards (to the Earth's surface), pushed by pressure of the rocks forming underneath.
Phi > Measurement
+a 1/(2^a)
Measurement > Phi
1/a = - (2^what)
How can they be seen
flood, storm, earthquake, volcanic eruptions, tsunami
Microsecond
Temporal Units
Punctuated Equilibrium
Event morphology
U=(z-z0-SL)/t
Uplift Rate Equation
Glacial Rebounding
Isostatic (when the glaciers melted the water went into oceans and land rebounded due to lessening of weight)
tidal range/4
angle of marine platform=
levering
the shedding of sediment to lighten the land
Glacial Incision
the ice between mountains erodes the middles "lightening" the mountains so they rise
Relative Sea Level
Global - Local = Relative sea level
Positive Weathering Feedback
More surface area, More surfaces for chemical weathering... Allows for easier physical weathering
Mostly chemical weathering or from sediment
Soil Results from what kind of weathering?
Mostly physical weathering
Sediment results from what kind of weathering
Soil Catena
A diagram of a topographical slope used to show how the top of a hill is well drained and oxidized while the bottom is like peat, poorly drained and can become waterlogged like a swamp
Temporal equilibrium
steady state equilibrium
Title
Tells you what the map is about
threshold
a region marking a boundary
Isostasy
Local Movement
Sediment comes from
erosion implying transport
Sediment over time becomes
soil which get acted on by weathering
Spherocity
how close a grain is to being spherical
Roundness
how smooth the particle is
Paleosols
Soils used as geomorphic indicators
Reaction of aeolian activity aka triggers of paleosol movement
fires, storms or infestation could kill vegetation so the dune is exposed and able to travel again
σ=Wt(cosθ)
How to calculate an objects Stability force and Activity (sheer) force
Slope Process Geomorphology
Rock (lower than -1 phi)
Slide's ground contact
have constance contact with the slope
scarp
the visible slope after a slump
Tilt of a tree perpendicular to the slope would indicate
a recent event which the tree has not yet had time to adjust to
absolute location
the exact location of something
tsunami speed equation
V=sqrt(gravity x depth of water)
rock slide
What type of landslide is a volcano collapse?
8848 m
Highest mountain elevation
Sand-Silt boundary
4 phi
Silt-Clay boundary
8 phi
Sand-Gravel boundary
-1 phi