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Biogeography


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colonization
when propagules arrives in an area and establishes a reproducing population
Invasion
The colonization of a new region by a species that has been introduced to that region by humans.
aquifer
big saturated area under water
Passive dispersal
Relies on physical forces to disperse propagules (e.g., wind, water, large storms). Plants almost exclusive disperse this way. Also planktonic invertebrate larvae, gastropods, bivalves
Anemochores
Dispersed by wind. Common for plants. Ex, dandy lions, tumbleweed. Very light with not much metabolic reserve. Produced in great numbers. Distributed randomly, more likely to end up in inhospitable sites.
Hydrochores
Dispersed by water. Coconuts can float and remain viable for months before landing on a suitable beach
Zoochores
Dispersed by animals. Ex, plants that produce burrs that attach onto other animals. Invest more into seed, but are more resistant to death by desiccation and shading.
anthropochores
dispersal by humans
Seasonal migrations
Annual movement for the purpose of avoiding harsh conditions, feeding, and mating
Irruptions
Episodic explosions in the population size and geographic ranges of insects or animals.
Supertramps
Some organisms seem particularly well suited for rapid dispersal and successful colonization.
Intra-range dispersal
Dispersal that maintains an existing population
Propagule
A life cycle stage such as a seed or a part of the organism that can reproduce
anerobic
organisms retreated into low or no oxygen environments (deep underground, in bottom sediments etc.)
Jump Dispersal
Expansion of a species' range across an area that is not occupied by the species. More common for wind dispersal seeds and flying animals. Not surprising that remote islands do not have many native mammals.
Invasive Species
Non-native species that have been introduced to a new region by humans. Species that have been introduced by humans (non-native or exotic) and that colonize new regions outside of where they were introduced. Their suc…
Hydrilla
Better competitor for resources. Fast growth and reproduction, generalist, low light and CO2 compensation points. Can reproduce in many ways, vegetative and seed. FL spends 14.5 million a year to control the species. 70…
Native Hawaiian Spiders
Endemic to the islands. Thought to have arrived via web-flying (ballooning). Baby black widow spiders are also often transported by the wind
Mangrove hydrochores
Dominate tropical coastlines. Seed germination actually occurs whiel the propagule is attached to the parent tree.
Benefits of dispersal
Avoid overcrowding and competition for resources, changing environment (move to a more suitable environment), avoid inbreeding and decrease fitness
Mountains as barriers
Organisms at higher elevations can't survive the hot desert conditions, which are barriers to their dispersal. Similar barriers exist for organisms that cannot tolerate cold-moist conditions at high elevations.
Why N. American mammals were more successful
They were better migrators (dispersers). They were better at adapting. They were better competitors. The isolation of S. America probably contributed to the competitive inferiority of its biota relative to teh N. American biota, w…
Realized niche
fundamental niche restricted by pressures from other species
Hawaiian forests promoting invasive species
Invasive plants leaves are thinner and leaf litter exhibits faster rates of decomposition. High leaf nutrient concentrations of invasive plants result in more nutrients being made available when decomposed. Might result in a positive feed…
Niche
the functional role an organisms plays in the ecosystem
Scale
A drawing showing measurements that help you estimate actual distances
Stenotopic
very specific preferences and limited ecological tolerance
~ 2070m
Average elevation of the earth
Aquatic
Having something to do with water
climatic relicts
species more widespread and affected by climate
neoendemic organisms
may be endemic only due to restriction time to expand range. found in places geologically new and rarity is function of youth
paleoendemic organisms
ancient endemic, old species that have been restricted; once more broadly distributed, retreated to current ranges in response to climate change
angiosperms
flowering plants
unwilling anemochores
dispersed unwillingly by wind; ex. saw wheat owl
0.003%
% of Earth Potable Water
sweepstakes
jump dispersal; occasional arrivals
intrarange
ecological within same area; important in maintaining species population within geographic region
unlimited dispersal
seawater distributed plants; coconut, beach palm
very good dispersal
aqautic plants with seeds imbedded in mud
good dispersal
flesh fruits eaten by birds
Chemical Weathering Process:
refers to actual decomposition and decay of the constituent minerals in rocks due to chemical alteration of those minerals, always in the presence of water.
poor dispersal
large seeds and fruits
Seasonal migration
The process of moving for a period of time in response to labor or
spreading
new oceanic crust is formed by the convective upwelling of magma at mid-ocean ridges, resulting in the continuous lateral displacement of existing oceanic crust
Subduction
Process in which one plate moves under another plate, and into the mantle. Takes place at a convergent boundary.
Theory of natural selection
genetically controlled changes in physiology, anatomy and behavior that occur to a species over time; more offspring will produce than will survive, fittest will survive and those genes are carried on
chromosomes
structures that carry genes made up of DNA
consumers
Conversion of plant tissue to herbivore tissues is very inefficient
mutation
genetic change in an organism either from alteration of DNA or shift in structure or number of chromosomes; change in genotype
Consumption
A necessary aspect of human existence
phenotype
the way the gene is expressed
sympatric speciation
speciation occurs within area of ancestral species
non-heritable variation
differences arise from environment
heritable variation
differences passed through genes
Explosive Eruptions
o Volcanic activity along subduction zones
systematics
classification of organisms into taxa that summarize patterns of similarities
phylogeny
evolutionary relationship between an ancestor and all known descendants
phenetics
overall similarity of organisms; things grouped on basis of genetic and morphological similarities
taxonomy
naming things based on similarities and differences
vicariance Biogeography
study of distribution patterns of organisms that attempt to reconstruct historical events through cladistic methods (little to no attention to dispersal capabilities or ecological properties)
vicariants
two disjunct species that are not closely related to each other and that are assumed to have been created when an initial range of the ancestor was split by some historical event
continental islands
once connected to mainland or continental shelf, still apart of continent
oceanic islands
never part of continent, typically volcanic islands or coral atolls. pop up in middle of ocean
volcanic islands
not geologically part of any continent; arise from subduction of one plate under another
Commodity chain
Series of links connecting the many places of production and distribution and resulting in the commodity and is meant to exchange on the market
bottleneck effect
population decreases in size to a small number of individuals and then increase in size again
relics
species only on islands because they are left there and not much influx in different species
innovation effect
long established human population adopt new hunting new techniques and erase fauna stressed by climate