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This is the measure of the force with which air molecules push on a surface. It is strongest at the Earth's surface because more air is above you. As you move farther away from…
Average annual temperature
Monthly average temperatures added together and divided by 12.
Boreal and taiga forest
Coniferous first that stretches from east to west across Canada, south of the tundra but north of the grassland mixed forest.
The average weather that occurs in a given region over a long period-typically over several decades
Place where climate information is gathered.
Concentric Zone Model
1920s: A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
a long narrow current of fast moving air found in the upper atmospheric levels
contains clay, sand, and humus, holds water, contains many nutrients, and plants grow well in it
Long grass prairie
Type of vegetation in the interior plains with a lot of precipitation.
Climate type that is strongly influenced by the ocean or other large water body. Temperature range is small.
Vegetation region they contains both coniferous and deciduous trees. It is a transition zone.
Effect that large water bodies have on the climate over nearby land area. Making winters warmer and summers cooler.
Plants that would grow in an area in the absence of human influence.
Seeds used in the production of cooking oil such as canola or sunflower.
Vegetation region that is a transition zone between grassland and boreal forest.
Stormy boundary between cold, dry arctic air and warm, moist tropical air.
Short grass prairie
Type of vegetation in the interior plains with very little precipitation.
Deep intertwined root system of grass. Absorbs and stores moisture and holds soil in place.
a vertical section through all of the soil horizons
A climate region found in southern Ontario and Quebec.
Subtraction of colder average temperature from warmest average monthly temp.
Area where the characteristics of one region gradually change into those of another
cold and treeless, with low-growing vegetation
warmer air; light and steady precipitation; move southwest to northeast,
The atmospheres condition at a given time and place with respect to temperate, moisture, wind, and barometric pressure
West coast forest
A lush forest of Douglas fir, Sitka spruce, created due to heavy rainfall plus a mild climate.
A proccess powered by adhesion that causes water molecules to move upward through a narrow tube such as the stem of a plant.
the process by which molecules of water vapor in the air become liquid water
how many km thick is the outer core?
a rock sphere
what are the three different spheres that earth consists of
Air with a lapse rate less than the wet adiabatic rate.
the decayed remains of organisms
Removal of materials from soil by water as it move downward through the soil in wet climates.
side of mountains where deserts are, precipitation doesn't reach
Pollution from fertilizers and farms made up of nitrates and phosphates
the source of the mineral matter in soil
ground that is permanently frozen.
Winds that are most common in an area.
Precipitation created when an air mass tried to cross a mountain barrier.
material in the top layer of the surface of the earth in which plants can grow (especially with reference to its quality or use)
the upper layer of soil that contains minerals and humus (A horizon- mostly minerals from parent material with organic matter- good for plants to live in)
Boundary between tundra and boreal zone where trees stop growing due to temperature.
breaking down rocks
This is the movement of air caused by differences in air pressure. The greater the pressure difference, the faster it moves.
Side of the mountain facing the prevailing winds.
Mamaku podsolised soil
ground litter, hummus layer
S. Soil nutrient source (MP)
V. Optimum climate/soil conditions (MP)
cool climate, low nutrient MP soil
ground litter, canopy, top 1m MP soil
V. Location where podocarp locks its nutrients from MP soils
S. Podsol parental material (MP)
An urban settlement that has been legally incorporated into an independent, self-governing unit.
RD soil material
Lava is formed at destructive and collision margins and has the same characteristics as Andesitic lava
RD horticulture type- vegetables and edible plants
combo of bedrock rhyolite and rising lake levels
ancient lake terraces
RD lake flactuactions formed..
lake sediments and new a-horizon soil
RD creates fertile bands mix (highly fertile & nutricious)
RD enviro cond protect soil (veg blocks wind+rain, lower altitude- warmer temp) and soil properties (sandy loam locks in nutrients)
TR nutrient level
low, more than podsol
warm, dry, low rf
TR enviro cond- veg dont soak up nutrients as well
TR live for over 2 years, bind soil