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Level 76

Vegetation–Soil–Climate Interactions


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Air Pressure
This is the measure of the force with which air molecules push on a surface. It is strongest at the Earth's surface because more air is above you. As you move farther away from…
Average annual temperature
Monthly average temperatures added together and divided by 12.
Boreal and taiga forest
Coniferous first that stretches from east to west across Canada, south of the tundra but north of the grassland mixed forest.
Climate
The average weather that occurs in a given region over a long period-typically over several decades
Climate station
Place where climate information is gathered.
Concentric Zone Model
1920s: A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
Jet Stream
a long narrow current of fast moving air found in the upper atmospheric levels
Loam
contains clay, sand, and humus, holds water, contains many nutrients, and plants grow well in it
Long grass prairie
Type of vegetation in the interior plains with a lot of precipitation.
Maritime climate
Climate type that is strongly influenced by the ocean or other large water body. Temperature range is small.
Mixed forest
Vegetation region they contains both coniferous and deciduous trees. It is a transition zone.
Moderating effect
Effect that large water bodies have on the climate over nearby land area. Making winters warmer and summers cooler.
Natural vegetation
Plants that would grow in an area in the absence of human influence.
Oil seeds
Seeds used in the production of cooking oil such as canola or sunflower.
Parkland
Vegetation region that is a transition zone between grassland and boreal forest.
Polar front
Stormy boundary between cold, dry arctic air and warm, moist tropical air.
Short grass prairie
Type of vegetation in the interior plains with very little precipitation.
Sod mat
Deep intertwined root system of grass. Absorbs and stores moisture and holds soil in place.
soil profile
a vertical section through all of the soil horizons
Southeastern
A climate region found in southern Ontario and Quebec.
Temperature range
Subtraction of colder average temperature from warmest average monthly temp.
Transition zone
Area where the characteristics of one region gradually change into those of another
tundra
cold and treeless, with low-growing vegetation
Warm Front
warmer air; light and steady precipitation; move southwest to northeast,
Weather
The atmospheres condition at a given time and place with respect to temperate, moisture, wind, and barometric pressure
West coast forest
A lush forest of Douglas fir, Sitka spruce, created due to heavy rainfall plus a mild climate.
capillary action
A proccess powered by adhesion that causes water molecules to move upward through a narrow tube such as the stem of a plant.
Condensation
the process by which molecules of water vapor in the air become liquid water
2300
how many km thick is the outer core?
a rock sphere
what are the three different spheres that earth consists of
Absolute stability
Air with a lapse rate less than the wet adiabatic rate.
humus
the decayed remains of organisms
Leaching
Removal of materials from soil by water as it move downward through the soil in wet climates.
leeward
side of mountains where deserts are, precipitation doesn't reach
nutrients
Pollution from fertilizers and farms made up of nitrates and phosphates
parent material
the source of the mineral matter in soil
permafrost
ground that is permanently frozen.
Prevailing wind
Winds that are most common in an area.
Relief precipitation
Precipitation created when an air mass tried to cross a mountain barrier.
soil
material in the top layer of the surface of the earth in which plants can grow (especially with reference to its quality or use)
Topsoil
the upper layer of soil that contains minerals and humus (A horizon- mostly minerals from parent material with organic matter- good for plants to live in)
Tree line
Boundary between tundra and boreal zone where trees stop growing due to temperature.
Weathering
breaking down rocks
wind
This is the movement of air caused by differences in air pressure. The greater the pressure difference, the faster it moves.
Windward
Side of the mountain facing the prevailing winds.
MP Soil
Mamaku podsolised soil
Podocarp vegetation
MP Vegetation
ground litter, hummus layer
S. Soil nutrient source (MP)
V. Optimum climate/soil conditions (MP)
cool climate, low nutrient MP soil
ground litter, canopy, top 1m MP soil
V. Location where podocarp locks its nutrients from MP soils
mamaku ignimbrite
S. Podsol parental material (MP)
oturua soil
RD soil
Horticulture
RD vegetation
City
An urban settlement that has been legally incorporated into an independent, self-governing unit.
sandy loam
RD soil material
Rhyolite
Lava is formed at destructive and collision margins and has the same characteristics as Andesitic lava
olericulture
RD horticulture type- vegetables and edible plants
RD formation
combo of bedrock rhyolite and rising lake levels
ancient lake terraces
RD lake flactuactions formed..
lake sediments and new a-horizon soil
RD creates fertile bands mix (highly fertile & nutricious)
no leaching
RD enviro cond protect soil (veg blocks wind+rain, lower altitude- warmer temp) and soil properties (sandy loam locks in nutrients)
oropi
TR soil
TR nutrient level
low, more than podsol
warm, dry, low rf
TR enviro cond- veg dont soak up nutrients as well
perrenial vegetation
TR live for over 2 years, bind soil