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Level 74

Ecology & Plant Succession


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Plant ecology
the interaction among plants, and between plants and the environment
population
A group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
habitat
place where an organism lives.
Niche
the functional role an organisms plays in the ecosystem
Plant community
different populations of plants living together in the same geographical area
Bestiary
Zoological Scrap books. Served a double pur…
trophic level
Each step in the food chain or food web
Producers
photosynthetic organisms
herbivores
1st order consumers
biomass
The total amount of living tissue, usually measured in grams, within a given trophic level
altitude
height of a point in relation to sea level
biosphere
earth, air, and water woven into each, the spark of life
Benefits of Using Maps
Shows the whole earth at once, and can show a variety of topics at a variety of scales
Plant succession
a series of predictable changes over time in the kinds of plant growing in the area
Climax Community
Relatively stable community at the end of succession
Light, wind, humidity
Physical factors of dominant species (Redwood Forest)
Nutrients, pH
Chemical Factors of dominant species (Redwood Forest)
Biotic vs. Abiotic
Living vs. Nonliving
cognitive dissonance
a type of psychological conflict that can occur after a purchase (consumers who have already made a major purchase may have doubts about whether they got the right product at the right price)
Braided:
occurs from excess stream capacity; occurs when reduced discharge affects a stream's transportation ability, under seasonal conditions
colder, coldest.
3 possible states: warm
Water Cycle
the continual movement of water among Earth's atmosphere, oceans, and land surface through evaporation, condensation, and precipitation
nitrogen cycle
ammonification is the first stage in the _______
Greenhouse effect
trapping and build-up of heat in the atmosphere near the Earth's surface
Global Warming
the recent and ongoing global average increase in temperature near the Earth's surface
Initial- unstable with high rate of replacement
As ecosystems age, the kind of organisms change until a stable type of community forms.
primary succession
if the land has never had living organisms on it, its progression to its climax community is called _______
soil
material in the top layer of the surface of the earth in which plants can grow (especially with reference to its quality or use)
Primary Succession on Forest Habitats
Linches (pioneers), mosses (ferns), grasses, shrubs, trees
Purpose of Soil
1. Provides essential nutrients to all plants (water and minerals)
Soil Characteristics
Parent material, soil texture, sand, silt, clay, organic matter, pH
parent material
the source of the mineral matter in soil
Soil Texture
all soils contain 3 kinds of particles, sand, silt (very small particles), clay (most important where nutrients are held)
humus
the decayed remains of organisms
Organic Matter
humus is decomposing organic matter in the soil
Soil pH
acid (low pH) or basic (high pH) influences soil fertility and nutrient availability
secondary succession
if the land had previously been occupied with living organisms, it is called _______
Speed of Secondary Succession
Since soil is already in place, secondary succession is 5-10 times faster than primary affected by abiotic factors
Plant Community affects Abiotic Factors
1. Vegetation creates rainfall through transpiration