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Level 55

Vertical Structure of the Ocean

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surface layer
2% ocean - 0 meters to 100/200 meters
Intermediate Layer
18% ocean - 100/200 meters to 1000 meters
only layer with sunlight - photosynthetic organisms - most of the food (base of food chain) - most animals are here for food - only layer potentially warm - year round in low latitudes; seasonally in mid-lattitude
Surface Layerr
animals descend during the day to hide from predators - rise under darkness - largest migration of animals on planet
__ that live at top need to prevent from sinking to bottom - _______ at the bottom stay there
how not to sink
1. attach to something that floats
the process by which molecules of water vapor in the air become liquid water
light penetration 100m
1% remains, 99% absorbed
visible light
bandwidth on electromagnetic spectrum of radiation - most of the radiation reaching earth from the sun so we evolved to see it
shortest wave length
longest wave length
some predators can see heat of prey
Intermediate Layerr
18% of ocean…
Intermeediate Layer
in poles little to no temp change - salinity increases at most lattitudes - temp decreases, salinity increases = increased density - fluids of different densities do not mix (tropics mix is most extreme)
multicellular organisms that use photosynthesis - organic waste is decomposed, nutrients are released back into the environment
abyssal zone
Deep ocean zone
plants and nutrients
_______ are brought to _______ by mixing of deep water and surface water (at least in the tropics)
tropical water
clearer because of lack of microscopic organisms
polar water
plenty of nutrients at the surface
poles summer
huge boom - 24 hours of sunlights, less sea ice - sun doesn't wise in winter
mid latitudes
temperate zones - have greatest productivity in surface waters - higher biomass of organisms - density at lowest - sunlight available year around
the degree of ease with which it is possible to reach a certain location from other locations
organisms produce own lights - chemical reaction (like fireflies) - much more diverse across species
purpose for bioluminesence
to see a short distance ahead - highlight red prey - attract mates - avoid predatation - lure for prey - general communication
using other senses
heightened sence of touch - heightened sense of hearing - heightened sense of smell
Water with salinity between saltwater and fresh water
potentially explosive problem from landfills. Many have died from explosions.