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Map & Geographic Terms


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Axis
A pattern of crossed lines formed by lines of latitude and longitude
Biotic
Living parts of an ecosystem
Key
A box in which a map symbol are explained. Also called a legend
Tropic of Cancer
Latitude 66.5° North and the Southernmost place where the sun does not rise on at least one day of the year
Global grid
A pattern of crossed lines of latitude and longitude
Arctic circle, Tropic of Cancer (TO BE CORRECTED)
Latitude 23.5° N The place farthest north where the sun will shine directly overhead
Physical map
A map that shows land forms and bodies of water
Compass rose
A pointer showing the four cardinal direction and sometimes intermediate directions as well
Political map
A map that shows cities, states and countries
Scale
A drawing showing measurements that help you estimate actual distances
Cartographer
Someone who makes maps
Physical Maps
Only show natural things
Politial Maps
Only show Man-made things
Reference Maps
Show both man-made and natural things
Thematic maps
Information about one feature
Choropleth maps
Uses shading to show variables
Pin dot maps
Shows # of occurences
Cartogram
Show size using data other than area
Isoline
Connects points of data that are the same
Small scale map
Shows a large area in less detail
Large Scale map
Shows a small area in great detail
Compass rose and cardinal directions
North, South, East West, tells you directions
Ratio scale
Represents measurement
Grid System
Identifies absolute location
Latitude
Runs East and West
Longitude
Runs North and South
Antarctic Circle
One of the 5 main circles of parallels
Tropic of Capricorn
Circle of latitude that contains the subsolar point on the December Solstice
Prime Meridian
What is the name of the line that separates the eastern and western hemisphere?
International Date Line
What is the name for the line that marks the beginning of the world's time zones?
Globes
Accurate tools geographers use to look at a place on Earth
Maps
Geographers use maps to examine specific information about detailed areas
Advantages of Globes
More accurate, correct shape, show whole world, correct distances and sizes of physical features
Advantages of Maps
Flat, can fit in pocket, can show more specialized information, more detailed
Hemisphere
Half the Earth
Scale Bar
Measured space (in inches) compared to real distances (in miles)
Map Projections
Systems of presenting the round Earth onto a flat map
Cartography
Science of making maps
A rough, working-class area
What was it like in the Victorian times?
Mercator Projections
Shows true direction and true shape. Distorted near the poles (navigation)
Climate
The average weather that occurs in a given region over a long period-typically over several decades
Conic Projections
Based on a cone placed over the globe. It is most accurate along the latitudes where it touches the globe. It retains almost true shape and size. Good for maps showing East-West dimensions (USA)
Consumer
Organism that obtains energy by consuming plants or other organisms
Political Maps
Show human-made features: borders/divisions, locations and cities' names
Biotic (or biological) community
All the species that occur together in a given area and that interact with one another
Relief
The difference between the elevations of two features
Census Tract
An area deliniated by the US beureau of the census for which statisitcs are published; in urbanized areas, census tracts correspond roughly to neighborhoods
Geospatial Technologies
Help us think spatially about geography (cell phones, GPS)
Technology
Any way scientific discoveries are applied to practical use
Continuous Distribution
Area occupied by group consists of a single region or a number of regions adjacent to one another
Satellites
Gather info through remote sensing
Remote Sensing
To get info from far away
What is a map?
It is a 2 dimensional projection of the world. All maps are distorted.
What are 3 uses of mental maps?
Daily activities, give directions, and understand world events
Andesitic Magma
Type of magma with a medium amount of silica content: found along continental margins where ocean crust is subducted into the mantle. Can often be explosive.
Arabian gulf
What is the other name for the Persian Gulf?
Mercator Projection
Which map projection makes Greenland look as large as South America?
A Globe
What is more accurate, a map or a globe?
natural resource map
What type of map shows where natural materials humans use are located?
Area, Shape, Distance, Direction
What are the four things easily distorted on maps?
What are some practical uses of geography at the local and regional level?
Planning a recycling program, land use and transportation planning, selection of locations for residential and commercial development, monitoring air and water quality and management
Who uses a Robinson map? Why?
Teachers and educators because it is an accurate map with little distortion (errors in the map)
What is a polar projection? Who uses them the most?
A Polar projection is a one that shows the earth from the top of the poles. Pilots use them the most because they fly in an arc not in straight lines to cut off …
What are map projections?
How the Earth is shown on a map. There are three types of projections: Polar, Robinson, Mercator.
What are the ways we can improve (refine) our mental maps?
There are 4 ways to refine our mental maps. 1. Compare sketch maps to maps in atlases. 2. Use reference points to describe the location of places 3. Use geographic features to describe the loca…
What are three uses of mental maps?
1. Give directions 2. Carry out daily activities 3. Understand world events.
What are mental maps?
They are maps that are in our head. They are limited by our experience and knowledge.
The color blue
How is water usually shown on a map?
What are population maps?
They are thematic maps that show the population density or distribution of an area.
What kind of information do physical maps usually show?
Lakes, rivers, landforms, other physical features, and elevation (colors, contour lines, shading)