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Level 42

Structure of the Earth

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Plate Tectonics
The theory that Earth's lithosphere is broken into pieces (plates) that move over the asthenosphere; boundaries between plates are where most earthquakes and volcanoes occur and where lithosphere is created and recycled.
Pangaea, Pangea
A large "supercontinent" that is believed to have connected all of the continents on earth about 225 million years ago.
3 causes of unequal heating on Earth
variation in the Sun's angle, variation in the amount of surface area for Sun ray distribution, unequal reflection of solar energy
Mantle (of the Earth)
Layer of the Earth between the crust and the core. The mantle is about 1,800 miles thick and makes up about 85% of the total volume of the Earth.
(ICE) Cyrosphere
Solid Di-Hydrogen Monoxide
Explosive Volcanism
o Responsible for the most deaths related to volcanism
Transform Plate Boundary
The boundary between two plates that slide pass one another, sudden shifts result in major geological events such as earthquakes and the release of stored energy.
Mid-Ocean Ridge
an undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced; a divergent plate boundary
Rift Valley
A long, narrow valley in Earth's crust where two continental plates are separating or between two faults.
Process in which one plate moves under another plate, and into the mantle. Takes place at a convergent boundary.
Kills bacteria and other non viral microbes, cheap, residual effect, carcinogenics
Climax Community
Relatively stable community at the end of succession
In dry climate the process by which water carrying dissolved minerals moves upward through the soil leaving minerals behind at the surface.
Bacteria and Fungi
Decomposers of dead material
P Wave (Primary Wave)
Earthquake wave that is compressional (moves like a slinky). Travels faster, can travel through liquid layers of the Earth
S-Wave (Secondary Wave)
Earthquake waves that travel up-and-down (like a jump rope). Travel more slowly, can NOT travel through liquid layers of the Earth
Surface Waves
Earthquake waves that travel both sideways (like P-waves) and up-and-down (like S-waves). Cause damage to man-made structures.
plasticlike layer of the Earth's surface below the lithosphere
tectonic plates
Sections of the Earth's crust that move due to convection currents.
23.5 degrees north
What is the degree reference for the Tropic of Cancer?
what is the layer beneath the crust called?
what is another name for the tectonic plates that float on the mantle?
what is used to measure the strength of an earthquake?
what is the name of the trace produced by a seismometer?
Where do volcanoes form?
at the edges of the tectonic plates
who proposed the theory of continental drift
What is Continental Drift?
When all contentients drift apart. They all used to fit together like a puzzle.
small crystals
fast cooling magma will form?
large crystals
slow cooling magma will form?
rock so hot that is melted into liquid is called?
Mohorovičić discontinuity
the boundary between the earth's crust and the upper part of the Asthenosphere; seismic waves change speed at this boundary
Transform Boundry
a plate boundry where two plates move past each other in opposite directions
Oceanic Ridge
Long under sea mountain chain that has a steep narrow valley at its center, that forms as magma rises from the athenosphere and creates new oceanic lithosphere as the plates move
narrow topographic depressions of the sea floor.
A supercontinent containing all of Earth's land that existed about 225 million years ago.
layers of the Earth
crust, mantle, outer core, inner core
volcanic eruption
when rivers of melted rock called lava rush from underground pools of magma to the earth's surface as a result of the increased pressure of gas inside of the earth
landforms created by the collision of tectonic plates
23.5 degrees south
What is the degree reference for the Tropic of Capricorn?
outer core
a layer of molten iron and nickel that surrounds the inner core of Earth
inner core
A dense sphere of solid iron and nickel at the center of the earth
CO2 fertilization
an effect of global warming, get lush plant growth.
the branch of geology that studies earthquakes
Assembly line
a production system with machines and workers arranged so that each person performs an assigned task again and again as the item passes before him or her
Nature of Faulting
o Subsurface area along a fault plane where the motion of seismic waves is initiated is the focus, or hypocenter. The area at the surface directly above the focus is the epicenter
the boundary between tectonic plates that are sliding past each other horizontally in opposite directions; San Andreas, earthquakes
process of heat transfer by the circulation or movement of a liquid or a gas
Compositional Layers
Core, Mantle, Crust (Oceanic and Continental)- Based on what each of the layers are made of and the elements that are within each layer
Continental Crust
-"Strong" (or middle) sphere
-Naturally occurring, inorganic solid mixture of one or more minerals.
Rock Cycle
The series of changes that a rock undergoes in order to become a new type of rock
capillary action
A proccess powered by adhesion that causes water molecules to move upward through a narrow tube such as the stem of a plant.
Air Pollution
Acid rain - damages buildings and vegetation
process of turning magma into a solid to form igneous rock
Magma once it is released from the Earth
Coarse-grained Texture
Rocks are made of larger grains such as pebbles
Igneous Rock
A type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the surface.
wispy, feathery clouds made of ice crystals that form at high levels
Igneous rock that is more dense and darker in color
Sedimentary Rocks
-Formed by weathering, erosion, or deposition
Clastic Sedimentary Rocks
form from fragments of other Rocks and minerals
Organic Sedimentary Rocks
forms from fossil remains of animals or plants that used to live in the ocean
Chemical Sedimentary Rocks
forms from solutions of minerals and water
Layers of sedimentary rock
Metamorphic Rock
A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat and pressure
Regional Metamorphism
Changes due to pressure buildup below the Earth from pieces of the crust colliding.
coal ash pond
Large water-filled hole in which burned coal from power plants is deposited
Metamorphic texture with no patterns or crystal alignment.
A hypothesis that has been tested with a significant amount of data