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Level 39

Supply Chains, Commodity Chains, & Production Net


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Globalization
the expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact
goods, services, money
what is free to move
people
what is not free to move
Commodities
anything that can be sold
Types of services
consumer services, business services
what are you buying in services
buying the benefit of the service
raw materials
products that lose weight in production are better situated near the _______
Manufacturing
oppotunity of employment in textiles
sectors of the economy - tertiary to quinary
low end services (3) like haircut to high end services (5) like IT
adhesion
An attraction between molecules of different substances
increasing interconnectedness (drivers of globalization)
technological innovation, offshoring/outsourcing, neoliberalism (policies)
McJobs
unskilled service job
pink collar jobs
stereotypically women's work
agriculture jobs
manufacturing jobs going to
Commodity
Goods or service available in the market for purchase .
Input-Output Structures
All products have input-output structures.
Contour interval
vertical distance separating two adjacent contour lines
Producer-Driven Chains
Large industrial TNCs play the central role in
Where does a commodity chain end?
the purchase and primary use of a commodity is often assumed to be the end point of the production system or commodity chain.
Society is traditional
5 steps of the modernization model
Walt Rostow
Who created the modernization model
Ladder of development
Another name for the modernization model
All of the other countries
What does the modernization model not take account of
Commodity chain
Series of links connecting the many places of production and distribution and resulting in the commodity and is meant to exchange on the market
The production of goods
Places along the commodity chain do not all benefit equally from
The generation of wealth depends on
How production occurs at each step
Anemometer
an instrument used to measure wind pressure
indigenous populations
The original inhabitants of a region who collectively wield little political power, and whose cultures and ways of life are threatened by the forces of economic development.
invention
A new combination of existing cultural features.
less developed countries (LDCs)
Countries that have a relatively low gross national product (GNP) and low annual family income.
linked changes
Changes in one part of a culture brought about by changes in other parts of the culture.
marginal people
Non-mainstream people who live at the fringes of their own culture.
Modernization theory
The approach to development that maintains countries should embrace global capitalism, reduce trade barriers, invite foreign investment, and diffuse markets to stimulate growth.
multiculturalism
A public policy philosophy that recognizes the legitimacy and equality of all cultures represented in a society.
multinational corporations
Large corporations that have economic operations in a number of different countries throughout the world.
Neocolonialism
The state of being economically independent on paper (de jure), but not in practice (de facto), that is, the domination of a country's economy by foreign corporations.
occupational duality
A practice found in many traditionally agricultural societies of the world in which an individual spends part of the year working on the farm and another part of the year working as a wage ear…
urban agglomerations
The population contained within a contiguous territory inhabited at urban density levels without regard to administrative boundaries.
voluntary associations
Political, occupational, religious, or recreational groups, usually found in an urban area, that people join freely and that often help in the adjustment to urban life.
world systems theory
An attempt to explain levels of economic development in terms of the exploitation of the poor by the rich nations of the world, rather than in terms of the innate socioeconomic characteristics of each.
Ammonia
In acid deposition, _______ neutralizes acids that are formed in the atmosphere.
gross national income (GNI)
the total market value of all goods and services produced in a country
multinational corporation (MNC)
a corporation that owns business enterprises in more than one nation. A business that is able to seek the most profitable venues to produce and market its goods and services regardless of national boundaries
Neoliberalism
idea that privatization of state run industries and Less spending on social services would benefit the country
Structural adjustment
The policies advocated by the International Monetary Fund as requirements for debt restructuring, typically including currency devaluation, reductions in government subsidies, and privatization.
Sweatshop
a shop or factory where workers work long hours at low wages under unhealthy conditions
artificial country
A country whose political boundaries and thus ethnic composition were established by outside political forces; usually a former colonial possession.
carbon dioxide
Respiration, combustion of fossil fuels, burning of rainforests and plant life
global knowledge
Cultural knowledge that is widely disseminated by means of a written language.
homeland
A geographical region over which a particular ethnic group feels it has exclusive rights.
indigenous minorities
Ethnically distinct groups of foragers, horticulturalists, and pastoralists who occupy their historical homelands, who are politically subordinate to larger national governments, and who are frequently referred to as "tribal" or "fourth-world" peoples.
local knowledge
Cultural knowledge that is disseminated orally and is thus known only by members of a local group.
nationality
An ethnic group that claims a right to a discrete homeland and to political autonomy and self-determination.
basic human needs approach
Projects aimed at providing access to clean water, education, and health care for the poorest of the world's people.
ammonium
plants take up nitrogen as this.
World Bank
Officially called the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, an international agency that provides technical assistance and loans to promote international trade and economic development, especially to poor nations. The World Bank has often …
4 minutes
How many minutes does it take the sun to get through one degree?
Carbonation:
reaction whereby carbon combines with minerals, dissolving them
modernization
The process of political and socioeconomic change, whereby developing societies acquire some of the cultural characteristics of Western industrial societies.
primary innovation
The creation, invention, or chance discovery of a completely new idea, method, or device.
rebellion
Organized armed resistance to an established government or authority in power.
revolution
Radical change in a society or culture. In the political arena, it involves the forced overthrow of an old government and establishment of a completely new one.
secondary innovation
The deliberate application or modification of an existing idea, method, or device.
syncretism
In acculturation, the creative blending of indigenous and foreign beliefs and practices into new cultural forms.
tradition
Customary ideas and practices passed on from generation to generation, which in a modernizing society may form an obstacle to new ways of doing things.
Change
To make different. Some changes are predictable and re-occur (are cyclic). Change is natural and ongoing
hard power
Coercive power that is backed up by economic and military force.
internal migration
permanent movement within a particular country
replacement reproduction
The point at which birthrates and death rates are in equilibrium; people producing only enough offspring to replace themselves when they die.
soft power
Cooptive power that presses others through attraction and persuasion to change their ideas, beliefs, values, and behaviors.
structural power
Power that organizes and orchestrates the systemic interaction within and among societies, directing economic and political forces on the one hand and ideological forces that shape public ideas, values, and beliefs on the other.
structural violence
Physical and/or psychological harm (including repression, environmental destruction, poverty, hunger, illness, and premature death) caused by impersonal, exploitative, and unjust social, political, and economic systems.
supply chain
is a system of organizations, people , activites, information and resources involved in moving a product or service from a supplier to customer
implications of global supply chains
it is hard to tell where resources come from, how to keep them honest?
what do companies say about their supply chain
say their supply chains are too complex to follow all the actors and trace where the minerals are coming from
Old World
Refers to the land masses of Europe, Asia, and Africa
New World
The land masses of North America, South America, and the islands of the Caribbean
indigenous peoples
The peoples who were native to the Americas, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Oceania at the start of European expansion
global trade
The economic exchange of goods and other products between the different peoples of the world via established trade networks