Level 30 Level 32
Level 31

Over-Urbanisation, Mega-Cities & Urban Primacy


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Acropolis
A fortified hilltop in an ancient Greek city
Agglomeration
A process involving the clustering or concentrating of people or activities. The term often refers to manufacturing plants and businesses that benefit from close proximity because they share skilled-labor pools and technological and financial amenities.
Agora
a central area in Greek cities used both as a marketplace and as a meeting place
Bid-Rent Theory
geographical economic theory that refers to how the price and demand on real estate changes as the distance towards the Central Business District (CBD) increases.
central business district
The downtown or nucleus of a city where retail stores, offices, and cultural activities are concentrated; building densities are usually quite high; and transportation systems converge
Centralization
Degree to which decision-making authority is restricted to higher levels of management in an organization.
central place theory
Theory proposed by Walter Christaller that explains how and where central places in the urban hierarchy should be functionally and spatially distributed with respect to one another.
central place
A market center for the exchange of services by people attracted from the surrounding area
City
An urban settlement that has been legally incorporated into an independent, self-governing unit.
Commercialization
Introducing a new product into the market
Concentric Zone Model
1920s: A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
absolute poverty
the minimum level of income required for physical survival. The World Bank defines this level as US $1 per day measured at international purchasing power parity
adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
Storing of energy. As glucose is burned, the energy released by the chemical bonds is transferred
biogeochemical cycle
Cycle of matter whereby elements pass from one organism to the next and among parts of the biosphere
Black Lung disease:
from inhaling coal dust
Carbon monoxide
Forest fires, car exhausts, incomplete combustion of fossil fuels -> suffocation
Circumboreal Distribution
around the northern regions. distributions of organisms possibly representing past movement of continents
Clathrate
liquid crystal. Large amount of methane are trapped in sediments.
conduction
the transfer of thermal energy from one particle of matter to another
conflict minerals
tungsten, tantalum, tin, gold
Globalization
the expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact
High Tech Corridors
an area along a limited-access highway that houses offices and other services associated with high-tech industries
hinterland
The market area surrounding an urban center, which that urban center serves.
Indigenous City
a center of population, commerce, and culture that is native to a country
infrastructure
the stock of basic facilities and capital equipment needed for the functioning of a country or area
Inner City
the older and more populated and (usually) poorer central section of a city
Mansions
a series of acting stations that represented biblical settings; the Saint plays and Mystery plays were performed with mansions
Megacities
Cities with more than 10 million people
megalopolis
a very large urban complex (usually involving several cities and towns)
metropolitan area
a major population center made up of a large city and the smaller suburbs and towns that surround it
multiple nuclei model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities.
Neighborhood
A small section of a community, town or city where people live.
Office Park
A cluster of office bulidings, usually located along an interstate, often forming the nucleus of an edge city
Planned Communities
A city built to a definite plan
Postindustrial City
a city in which global finances and the electronic flow of information dominate the economy
primate city
The largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
Redlining
A discriminatory real estate practice in North America in which members of minority groups are prevented from obtaining money to purchase homes or property in predominantly white neighborhoods. The practice derived its name from…
Restrictive Covenants
provision in a property deed preventing sale to a person of a particular race or religion; loan discrimination; ruled unconstitutional
Second Urban Revolution
Throughout the Second Urban Revolution, the primary determinant in the location of industrial cities was proximity to a power source
sector model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD).
Segregation
Separation of people based on racial, ethnic, or other differences
Shopping mall
mercantile establishment consisting of a carefully landscaped complex of shops representing leading merchandisers
site
ground occupied by a settlement
situation
location of a settlement relative to its surroundings
Slums
Poor, run-down urban neighborhoods
Social Stratification
one of two components, together with agricultural surplus, which enables the formation of cities; the differentiation of society into classes based on wealth, power, production, and prestige. Society is layered like a caste system. (Ex. Workers and Leaders)
Specialization
A focus on a particular activity or area of study
suburb
a residential district located on the outskirts of a city
suburbanization
movement of upper and middle-class people from urban core areas to the surrounding outskirts to escape pollution as well as deteriorating social conditions (perceived and actual)
Teardowns
Houses that new owners bought with the intention of tearing them down to build larger homes
Tenement
A building in which several families rent rooms or apartments, often with little sanitation or safety
town
the people living in a municipality smaller than a city
Underclass
Way below the poverty line. People in this class are generally homeless and have nothing to their name.
Underemployment
the condition when people work at jobs for which they are overqualified or that do not utilize their skills
urban
relating to or concerned with a city or densely populated area
Urban Growth Rate
Rate of growth of an urban population. Compare degree of urbanization.
urban hierarchy
a ranking of settlements according to their size and economic functions
Urban Morphology
the study of the physical form and structure of urban places. Layout of cities, physical form, and structure. Industrial and Residential planning.
urbanization
the growth of cities and the migration of people into them
Urbanized Population
the percentage of a country's population living in cities
Walter Christaller
German geographer who in the early 1930s first formulated central-place theory as a series of models designed to explain the spatial distribution of urban centers. Crucial to his theory is the fact that different g…
Zone in Transition
An area that is either becoming more rural or more urban
Zoning
dividing an area into zones or sections reserved for different purposes such as residence and business and manufacturing etc
base ratio
ratio between workers employed in the basic sector and those employed in the nonbasic sector
basic sector
sell products and services to consumers outside the settlement
non-basic sector
sell their products and services to consumers in the community
Bosnywash
a megalopolis. although it includes many large, distinct cities, the area is economically integrated, and the hinterlands around each city overlap to create a single urban expanse that stretches from Boston to Washington D.C. and beyond
center city
the urban area that is not suburban; generally, the older or original city that is surrounded by newer suburbs
complementary regions
noncompeting market areas
Antonio Munoz
Regulations can have vertical and horizontal direct effect
Cirrus
These clouds can be a sign that a storm is coming
Ghettos
Areas of town that were dirty, crowded, poor, violent, and full of disease.
Ghettoization
to isolate in or as if in a ghetto
greenbelts
a ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area
in situ accretion
zone that contains much more modest housing and transitions to the outer-ring poverty
manufacturing city
cities adapted to mushrooming of factories, supply facilities, transport systems, and labor force construction
megacity
Cities, mostly characteristic of the developing world, with high population growth and migration. All megacities have more than 10 million people
mercantile city
fronted by royal, religious, public, and private buildings evincing wealth and prosperity, power and influence (downtown)
multiplier effect
expansion of economic activity caused by the growth or introduction of another economic activity
nucleated
compact closely packed settlement
peripheral model
a model of North American urban areas consisting of a inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or wingroad
physical model
a continuous development that contains a central city and many nearby cities, towns, and suburbs
smart growth
legislation and regulations to limit the suburban sprawl and preserve farmland
social area analysis
the distribution of social characteristics in a census tract may be plotted on a map by a computer that stores vast amounts of data about the inhabitants
special-function cities
cities engaged in mining, manufacturing, or recreation, or education
transportation centers
where major routes converge-roads, railroads, sea traffic, and air transportation break of bulk point
urban elite
group of socially, politically, or economically dominant figures in a society.
urban empire
a nation or group of territories ruled by a single, powerful leader or emperor
urban geography
The study of how people use space in cities
urban renewal
program in which cities identify blighted inter-city neighborhoods, acquire the properties from private owners, relocate the residents and businesses, clear the site, build new roads and utilities, and turn the land over to private developers.
zoning ordinance
a law that limits the permitted uses of land and maximum density of development in a community
postive 1
arts and culture
positive 2
educational opportunities
positive 3
higher paying jobs
tourism
positive 4
positive 5
strong relationships
negative 1
not enough food
negative 2
child labour
negative 3
poor housing
negative 5
bad sanitation
negative 6
illegal wiring
traffic
negative 7
negative 8
air and water pollution
Millionaire city
A city with over a million inhabitants
Mega city
Total population in excess of 10 million. The density is normally over 2,000 persons/km2. It can be made up of two or more metropolitan areas that converge upon one another.
Millionaire
India & China have the most ... cities in the world.
Political influence
New York is home to the United Nations
Transport and communcation
Heathrow in London has more international passengers than any other airport.
Because it is an essential nutrient. It may reduce cancer risk.
Why is a toxic substance like selenium sold as a supplement in health food stores?