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New World Urban Geography II


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Concentric Zone Model
1920s: A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
sector model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD).
multiple nuclei model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities.
Urban Realms Model
Describes automobile-dependent metropolitan areas· Large, self-sufficient suburban sectors · 4 criteria shape the extent, character, & internal structure of each urban realm:(1) terrain (topography, water)(2) size of metropolis(3) amount of economic activity in each real…
Contact Metamorphism
A change in the texture, structure, or chemical composition of a rock due to direct contact or close contact with magma.
Globalization
the expansion of economic, political, and cultural processes to the point that they become global in scale and impact
Antipode
The antipode of any place is the point on the Earth's surface which is diametrically opposite to it. Two points that are antipodal to each other are connected by a straight line running through the center of the Earth.
Air Pollution
Acid rain - damages buildings and vegetation
How do people make cities?
Social and cultural forces work 1) Sharp contrast between rich and poor, 2) Lacks zoning laws.
primate city
The largest settlement in a country, if it has more than twice as many people as the second-ranking settlement.
Political Geography
the subdivision of human geography focused on the nature and implications of the evolving spatial organization of political governance and formal political practice on the Earth's surface.
Territoriality
Study of political organization. Attempt by an individual or group to control over a geographic area. In political geography, a country's or more local community's sense of property and attachment toward its territory, as expre…
Organize Political Space-Sovereighty
The authority of a nation-state's right to rule itself
Organize Political Space-Territorial Integrity
the right of a state to defend soverign territory against incurrsion from other states (Ex. Arizona Debate over border patrol, who has the right state gov. or fed gov?)
A Nation
Imagined community with common instituion, tradition, languages, customs, and sometimes religion. A cultural entity but can also be a political entity. A group of people with a shared past, who relate to the territory, (Ex. Cheyenne and Arapaho Tribe)
Anglo- American manufacturing belt
in the late nineteenth century, the region that included ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, and wisconisn and represented different major industries located in these areas
Imperialism
exercise of military power and
Nation-State
They are rare, and combine the concept of nation and state together. The political unit of people living in a defined territory, with government authority over thier economy, political organization and external security (Ex. Vat…
Nationalism
love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it, strong sense of loyalty to the government, the government promotes the nation, and patriotic.
Multinational State
State that contains two or more ethnic groups with traditions of self-determination that agree to coexist peacefully by recognizing each other as distinct nationalities. (Ex. Great Britain and Yugoslavia )
Stateless Nation
A cultural group that doesn't claim sovereignty over any territory. A nation that can't be defined politically as a state. (Ex. Palestine, until 1948: Jewish Nation)
Atzlan
legendary homeland of the Mexica people before their migration, Aztec roots, chicano movement
colonizers
stabilize the habitat
colonization
when propagules arrives in an area and establishes a reproducing population
U.S. Law
Physical Law, interpretation of the US Consitution and Federal law trumps state law [previous decisions in U.S. Courts (ex. Roe v. Wade) ]
U.S. Federal System
based on moral decisions- cultural ideology: death penalty, alcohol (excise taxes on gasoline), gun laws (concealed weapon laws), Abortion (not funded)
Specious
deceptive, apparently good or valid but lacking real merit; concept that an argument sounds good but is flawed.
Balkanization
Process by which a state breaks down through conflicts among its ethnicities
biome
have a particular combination of average annual temperature and annual precipitation and contain distinctive plant growth forms that are adapted to that climate
Voting Districts
House members represent a particular district of voters, southern states had to be forced to choose a district. (ex of spatial organization)
Territorial Representation
System wherein each representative is elected from a territorially defined district.
Reapportionment
the process of reallocating seats in the House of Representatives every 10 years on the basis of the results of the census. Draw new boundaries
Gerry Mandering
refers to the act of drawing congressional disticts to the advantage of the political party that controls the state legislator and is illegal. It uses reapportionment to their own advantage. The way they are separ…
Majority-Minority District
drawing districts to gain minority control
Boundraries
divide one state from another, cause problems with shared resources (Ex. Iraq and Ku-at drilling oil)
adiabatic temperature change
The cooling or warming of the air caused when air is allowed to expand or is compressed.
advection fog
A fog formed when warm moist air is blown over a cold surface.
Administrate Boundaries/ Allocational
Maintained (regulate goods and people)
NAFTA
North American Free Trade Agreement; allows open trade with US, Mexico, and Canada
contractarian ethics
an ethical standpoint that holds that moral norms are justified according to the idea of a contract or mutual agreement
Convection
process of heat transfer by the circulation or movement of a liquid or a gas
Organic State Theory
Freidrich Ratzel, 1844-1904, state is an organism, born, grows, dies, needs food. (explains how a state gains power). 19th century empires-> colonies.
Mackinder's Heartland Theory
Sir halford john mackinder - british geographer - wrote paper in 1904 called "the geographical pivot of history" - the paper suggested that the control of eastern europe was vital to control the world. hypoth…
Us vs. Them
humans tend to categorize people into groups (those who do act \like me) ( those who dont act like me), Wars promote this ideology: WWI, WWII, Cold War.
marshall plan
A United States program of economic aid for the reconstruction of Europe
Mutually Assured Destruction
(MAD) if either US or the USSR was hit with a nuclear weapons they would respond with the same
Bi-Polar Relationship
2 Polarized powers, mutually destroyed, nuclear powers
Process of Devolution
role of governors, eevenue sharing and catergorical grants (wasteful gov. spending, pork barrel), budget probs of the national gov, development of block grants, unfunded mandates bill, welfare reform act, medicaid transformation act
Multi-Polar
the world divided into many power centers (Ex. US, China, Russia, Europe)
Unilateralism
world order in which one state is in a position of dominance with allies following rather than joining the political decision-making process
NATO
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country especially against the Soviets
League of Nations
International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and German…
united nations
An international organization formed after WWII to promote international peace, security, and cooperation.
background extinction
the normal ongoing extinction of species
suburbs
residential neighborhoods outside of downtown areas
Primate Cities
the main economic, political, and cultural city of a country
urban hierarchy
a ranking of settlements according to their size and economic functions
hamlet
few basic services provided
village
Multiple gas stations
town
the people living in a municipality smaller than a city
hinterland
The market area surrounding an urban center, which that urban center serves.