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Level 26

Modernism & Planning

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What was the first modern city?
What were the significant changes in the first modern city?
more people were spread out throughout city (compared to dense population in center of city)
Louis-Napoleon bonaparte
popularly elected
George-Eugene Haussman
emperor who follows Napoleon
builds boulevards
reconstruction of streets in Paris
Honore Daumier
French painter best known for his satirical lithographs of bourgeois society (1808-1879)
Charles Marville
famous photographer for capturing beginning of city
large sidewalks
describe boulevards in Paris
negative impact of reconstruction of Paris
New construction of buildings replaces homes of people
aleutian trench
what is an example of a subduction zone
significance of opera houses
reflection of New culture that emerged
Moulin de la Galette
painting by Pierre-Auguste Renoir
captured pictures of city from inside hot air balloon (no one had ever seen pictures from such high elevations before)
have a particular combination of average annual temperature and annual precipitation and contain distinctive plant growth forms that are adapted to that climate
the term used to describe Haussmann's approach to urban redevelopment, including the mass destruction of working class' homes
Taking away or separating part of the solution so that it can be considered in isolation.
To break down designs into smaller more detailed sub-routines. Also known as top-down design.
Small sections of code within each modules.
Top-down Design
Progressively breaking a larger problem into series of smaller easier to solve problems
Performs a complete portion of a larger task and consists of one or more subroutines
Computer Aided Software Engineering
Reuseable module
One benefit of the abstraction process that allows
Software Project Management
Concerned with activities involved in ensuring that software is delivered on time, within budget, in accordance with the requirements.
Another Goal: Process Improvement
A process is not static.
Software Management Complications
The product is uniquely flexible.
Management: Issues of Scale
Small short project is easy.
Managent Process
Input: Software Requirements
Activity: Monitoring and Control
Goal: ensure project is proceeding according to plan and identify project risks
Activity: Termination Analysis
Goal: Summarize information about the project for process improvement
The total amount of living tissue, usually measured in grams, within a given trophic level
Metrics, Measurements, Models
Quantifiable measures of characteristics of system or process
Process of obtaining a value for the metrics.
Mechanism for estimating measurements or metrics.
Project Plan Components
1. Process and organization
~ 840m
Average elevation of exposed land on earth
What is the cheapest house price?
What was the average flat price in 2013?
Project Scheduling.
How do you measure progress on a software project?
Scheduling Problems
Estimating the difficulty of problems and hence the cost of developing solution is hard.
Schedule Milestones
Discrete event that occurs during the lifecycle, typically signaling achievement
Objective, Verifiable, Binary
What makes a good milestone?
Project Staffing
May not be possible to appoint the ideal people to work on a project - budget may not allow use of highly-paid staff, staff with appropriate experience may not be available, organization may wis…
Quality Assurance Activities
Reviews of artifacts; Proofs of design algorithms; Realistic test cases for code; Code inspections
The Risk Management Process: Risk Identification
Identify project, product and business risks
The Risk Management Process: Risk Analysis
Assess the likelihood and consequences of risks
The Risk Management Process: Risk Planning
Draw up plans to avoid/minimize risk effects
The Risk Management Process: Risk Monitoring
Monitor the risks throughout the project
Risk Type: Technology
Possible Risks: The database used in the system cannot process as many transactions per second as expected.
Risk Type: People
Possible Risks: It is impossible to recruit staff with the skills required.
Risk Type: Organizational
Possible Risks: The organization is restructured so that different management are responsible for the project.
Risk Type: Tools
The code generated by CASE tools is inefficient.
Risk Type: Requirements
Changes to requirements which require major design rework are proposed.
Risk Type: Estimation
The time required to develop the software is underestimated.
Risk Analysis
Assess probability and seriousness of each risk.
Risk Planning
Consider each risk and develop a strategy to identify and manage that risk
Risk Monitoring
Assess each identified risks regularly to decide whether or not it is becoming less or more probable.
Adam Smith
Author of "The Wealth of Nations" advocated the idea of "laissez faire," or government not involving themselves in the economy.
chemical weathering
the transformation of rock into one or more new compounds
exercise of military power and
Karl Marx
Who was the promoter of the Communism Theory?
Economic policy meaning to "leave alone", to let supply and demand control the market; idea that government should play as small a role as possible in economic affairs
The economic and political theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels that hold that human actions and institutions are economically determined and that class struggle is needed to create historical change and that capitalism …
Opium War
Chinese attempted to prohibit the opium trade, British declared war and won against Chinese; resulted in the Treaty of Nanjing, where China agreed to open 5 ports to British trade and limit tariffs on Bri…
Sepoy Mutiny
An 1857 rebellion of Hindu and Muslim soldiers against the British in India
White Man's Burden
A poem by Rudyard Kipling expressing the idea that many European countries felt they had a duty to spread their religion and culture to those less civilized
Chemical Corridor
Heavily industrialized 150 mile stretch of the Mississippi River, from Baton Rouge to New Orleans
Period of rapid growth in the use of machines in manufacturing.
the growth of cities and the migration of people into them
Communist Manifesto
This is the 1848 book written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels which urges an uprising by workers to seize control of the factors of production from the upper and middle classes.
Charles Darwin
English naturalist and scientist whose theory of evolution through natural selection was first published in 'On The Origin of the Species" in 1859; promoted the concept of "survival of the fittest"
Social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Berlin Conference
A meeting from 1884-1885 at which representatives of European nations agreed on rules for the colonization of Africa
Boer War
War between Great Britain and the Boers (Dutch Settlers) in South Africa over control of rich mining country. Great Britain won and created the Union of South Africa comprised of all the South African colonies.
Boxer Rebellion
A 1900 uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country.
Taiping Rebellion
A revolt by the people of China against the ruling Manchu Dynasty because of their failure to deal effectively with the opium problem and the interference of foreigners.
Meiji Restoration
The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism.
Russo-Japanese War
A 1904-1905 conflict between Russia and Japan, sparked by the two countries' efforts to dominate Manchuria and Korea; won by Japan
Pancho Villa
A popular leader during the Mexican Revolution of 1910. An outlaw in his youth, when the revolution started, he formed a cavalry army in the north of Mexico and fought for the rights of…
A member of the warrior class in premodern feudal Japan
Spheres of Influence
An area of one country under the control of another. In China, these areas guaranteed specific trading privileges to each imperialist nation within its respective sphere.
Apartment buildings that were run down and tightly packed.
spinning jenny
A machine produced by James Hargreaves in 1765 to mass produce thread
Climax Community
Relatively stable community at the end of succession
Thomas Malthus
an English economist who argued that increases in population would outgrow increases in the means of subsistence (1766-1834)
A political and economic system where factors of production are collectively owned and directed by the state.
A social and political philosophy based on the belief that democratic means should be used to evenly distribute wealth throughout a society
Collective Bargaining
Process by which a union representing a group of workers negotiates with management for a contract
A movement founded in the 1890s to promote the establishment of a Jewish homeland in Palestine.
A native African tribe in South Africa who fought with the Boers for control of the land
Suez Canal
A canal linking the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea. It was a vital trade route in the British Empire during imperialism, and continues to link North Africa and Europe to Asia today.
Open Door Policy
An agreement between nations (Europe, U.S.) to keep China's ports all open to foreign trade
Treaty of Kanagawa
Trade treaty between Japan and the United States opening up two Japanese ports to U.S. trade; signed in 1854 in response to a show of force by U.S. admiral Matthew Perry