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Why was Weber concerned with urbanization?
He saw cities at the center of capitalism and the expansion of nationalization
process of heat transfer by the circulation or movement of a liquid or a gas
What is Simmel's best known essay?
The Metropolis and Mental Life - It explained the sociopsychological consequences of cities
Intensification of nervous simulation
sensory overload that happens especially to newcomers in a city filled with a plethora of stimuli
Relationship between urban areas and traditional norms
Development of urban areas renders obsolete traditional norms of social interaction; transitory random encounters lead to social exhaustion and anxiety
How do people react to new urban settings?
People develop a defense mechanism in a form of a "blasé attitude" or a feeling of indifference and reserve toward others
How did the University of Chicago study urbanization?
Set the agenda for studying the growth and consequences of cities; chose to study social interactions empirically and focused on urban phenomena; felt that sociology needed to be modeled after the basic sciences t…
What is the Chicago school model of urban growth? (Inward out)
CBD, manufacturing, zone of transition, working class, residential, commuter. All are concentric rings that grow outward
Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn / One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich
brought light to horrors of living conditions and life inside of a gulag (Stalinist work camp)
Zone of transition
Migrants and workers come into the city and live near the city and factories; Don't have the money to commute but work in factory settings so they must live close to work
Residential and Commuter Areas
Filled with people who can afford to commute using buses or cars; live in more established districts that are farther away; can live in single family dwellings
Business concentration, residential decentralization
How does the CBD affect business and resident life?
Invasion and succession process
Immigrants and low-skilled workers move into the city and create a demand for products and land but can't afford to move too far so they live in the zone of transition; continuously look for l…
Growth and change that happens in cities is regulated by everyday hustle and bustle; cities tend to have normal rates of social dynamics: commerce, mobility; creates a pulse
Where do normal and abnormal rates of social phenomena conflict?
Along boundaries of districts; as new populations begin to invade new neighborhoods then property and resources are contested
What happens as neighborhoods change and other changes occur?
The city is able to regulate itself internally; everything falls back into a regulatory state
Primary group ties-friends and family
What groups are included in primary ties and what groups are included in secondary ties?
activist in urban studies; challenged the conventional wisdom regarding the value of "urban renewal" efforts; particularly concerned with move toward cleaning up and re-gentrifying urban areas
Benefits of urban areas
Urban areas are safer, facilitate social control, and promote individuality
What is least needed for the maintenance of social control?
Police. Neighbors who informally control each other are more effective
What keeps people the safest in cities?
Eyes on the street People walking around and paying attention. Widespread usage of sidewalks; coexistence of business and residences
urban areas yield a critical mass that enables the formation of social ties among people who have similar interests, which provides a basis for social cohesion; it is easier to find other people who have similar interests
How do cosmopolites, singles, and ethnic villagers react to cities?
They benefit from the city; the city provides a place of social cohesion and offers a rallying point for people who would otherwise not have been able to form a community (Ex: Chinatown, Little Sicily)
How do people in the zone in the middle react to cities?
They are disadvantaged by the concentration of poverty that emerges in some urban neighborhoods. Known as the "deprived" and the "trapped"
most cities near water/important industry
Spatial Perspectives: Making Sense of Space
Parks' Concentric Zones
1. loop for business
Chicago School - Urban Ecology
only rich people can leapfrog out > poor stack in high-rent areas
Spatial Assimilation Model
As individuals move up socioeconomic ladder, also look to match it with their residential gains
looked at residential sectors and how did/didn't change; growth through homogeneous pie-shaped sectors
Harris and Ullman Multiple Nuclei Theory
looked at Central Business Districts, can have multiple districts
greater specialization requires more central location
Los Angels School
Postmodernism: spatially fragmented cities
cities built around highways, multi-nucleated, dispersed, decentralized, etc.
radiate outward from common center; ring-like growth minimizes distance to center for the greatest # of people
rid pattern laid out around a Main Street for commerce
central place theory
Theory proposed by Walter Christaller that explains how and where central places in the urban hierarchy should be functionally and spatially distributed with respect to one another.
2/3 were poor
In 1889 what was the economic position of most people?
New Urban Sociology/Political Economy Perspective
emphasis on capitalism, class conflict, and political decisions
financial problems are consequence of capitalist economic system
primary circuit of capital: investment in production (creates Goods)
the wearing down of rock particles by friction due to water or wind or ice
urban growth machines; everyone has interest in growth. Cities influenced by social actions
look at city in the context of global patterns
about 5km thick made up of mostly basalt-like igneous rock
how think is the crust under the oceans and what type of rock is it made up of?
Vertical disintegration of firms > competitive pressures favor streamlining and outsourcing
Groundbreaking studies of social disorganization theory coming out of the University Chicago between the 1920s-1940s. Important shift and groundwork for Criminology, as during this time period there was a focus on the biological perspective for criminal behaviour.
Major methods of study for the Chicago School. Showed that areas of the city remained crime prone even though populations came and went.
Major methods of study for the Chicago School. The case study approach or "Ethnography." The everyday lives of "addicts, hobos and delinquents" - human ecology.
Concentric Zone Theory
Robert Park & Burgess (1924). Studied the social worlds of the metropolis. Produced distinctive concentric circles radiating from the central business district. The farther one moved away from the centre of these concentric zones,…
Symbolic Interactionism Theory
Human behaviour is the product of purely social symbols communicated between individuals. The mind and the self are not innate but are products of the social environment. It is the process of communicating, or symboliz…
occurs when a person raised in one culture is transposed into a different one. They are accustomed to their norms back home, and the new culture is quite different.
People within particular geographic boundaries create their own set of conduct norms. There are enough differences here to give rise to "conflict". State agents respond to the conflict based on middle class values.
Dispersed by wind. Common for plants. Ex, dandy lions, tumbleweed. Very light with not much metabolic reserve. Produced in great numbers. Distributed randomly, more likely to end up in inhospitable sites.
Way below the poverty line. People in this class are generally homeless and have nothing to their name.
Above the upperclass. This class is hidden from society and extremely powerful and influential due to their vast amounts of wealth and connections.
Cloward and Ohlin
Functionalists who expanded mertons theory by saying that people need illegitimate opportunity structures to engage in deviance
Illegitimate Opportunity Structure
Opportunities for crime are woven into the textures of life. More available and tempting for lower class urban young men. Usually refers to organized crime. Runs parallel to the Legitimate Opportunity Structure.
Legitimate Opportunity Structure
Opportunities generally available to individuals born into middle-class culture; participants in lower-class subcultures are often denied access to them
When decade did Leapfrogging begin?
Develop in communities unable to provide either legitimate or illegitimate opportunities. Organized crime doesn't flourish. Highly disorganized areas marked by transient residents and physical deterioration. Violence is a means for gaining status. Random spontaneous violence.
Double Failures - unable to gain access to success through legitimate means and unwilling to do so through illegal ones. Too clumsy, weak, or scared to accepted into criminal gangs. They retreat into a …
Differential association-reinforcement theory, social structure/learning
Charles Mulford Robinson, from Rochester NY, with GrecoRoman style in train stations & museums.
Who was the founder of the, "City Beautiful" movement but did not coin the name?
Non-living parts of an ecosystem
Who was the founder of the "Garden City"?
Ebenezer Howard (A Londoner, stuck working in Chicago after the Great Fire, later knighted).
Le Corbusier (an insensitive Swiss).
Who was the modernist urban geographer with ideas about the city as a machine?
Charles Eduouard Jeanneret.
What was the real name of Le Corbusier?
What was a German modernist school beginning with a "B"