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List the members of the First Coalition
What were the weaknesses of the First Coalition?
1. Britain and Holland didn't give enough/significant military assistance (mainly gave financial support)
Temporary alliance between powers that are usually on opposing sides
The reaction against the radicalism of the French Revolution that began in July 1794. Associated with the end of terror and establishment of the Directory.
What was the purpose of structuring the new voting procedure (Directory) as so?
The uneducated populace would believe they had political power while their influence was minor in comparison to that of the bourgeoisie
Define Universal Manhood Suffrage
everyone has the power to vote
Council of Five Hundred
Council of Ancients/Elders
What was the Legislative Assembly divided in?
Council of Five Hundred and Council of Elders/Ancients
What was the limitation placed on the two councils?
The Council of Five Hundred could propose laws, submit bills however, they had to be accepted by the Council of Ancients for them to become laws
Describe the Directory
Composed by five men, one retiring each year. The successor would be appointed by the Legislative Department
What group rose up after the defeat of Robespierre? Why?
The Royalists because of the relaxation of the censorship and terror against them.
What was the limitation on the Directory?
There was a yearly retirement system where one member would retire each year (member stayed in the Directory for 5 years). This was done to prevent the formation of a dictatorship.
Rule of 2/3.
What did the National Convention come up with to ensure that the royalists did not gain too much power?
What was the Rule of 2/3?
National Convention declared that 2/3 of the Council of Five Hundred and the Council of Ancients would be chosen from the members of the Convention itself.
Whiff of Grapeshot
Describe the event that resulted from the establishment of the Rule of 2/3?
the Jacobins and the Royalists
Who participated in the insurrection against the Tuileries Palace?
Define the Clichy Club
center of the royalists opposition. Constantly in touch with Louis XVIII.
Who was Louis XVIII?
Louis XVI brother (Louis XVII died in the attack of the Tuileries Palace)
What did Louis XVIII do while in Verona?
headed a propaganda agency which was financed by the British
What was Louis XVIII's obstacle to the restoration of the monarchy? Why?
Why was Louis XVIII's declaration an obstacle to the restoration of the monarchy?
majority of the population did not adhere exactly to the republic set up in 1795 but preferred it to the return of the Bourbons and the nobility.
Right: royalists (Clichy Club)
Who were the Directory's enemies (right and left)
Who composed the left which opposed the Directory?
people from various levels of society who favoured the more democratic ideals expressed earlier in the Revolution.
Who was the leader of the Society of Equals?
What was the Society of Equals?
one of the many societies which had risen during the Revolution. Lead by Francois Babeuf.
What were Babeuf's ideals?
first organised expressions of socialist or communist thoughts in those years
attempt seizure of power by murdering the Directors
Describe the conspiracy against the Directory planned by Babeuf and his supporters?
Who revolutionised the French army in the late 1700s?
organiser of victory
What was Carnot nicknamed thanks to his work?
New equipment and weapons
In what ways did Carnot revolutionise the French army?
Which 3 countries were forced to leave the First Coalition after the formation of the Directory in 1795?
one north of the Alps into southern Germany
What were the two thrusts against the Coalition (planned by Carnot)?
Generals Jourdan and Moreau
Who commanded the the armies of Germany?
French emperor who first gained power after being caused to break up a royalist rebellion in Paris, protecting the Directory (which he eventually got rid of). Also, a former Jacobin.
Jourdan, Moreau, Napoleon Bonaparte
Who were the three generals appointed to perform the campaigns against Germany and Italy?
Where and when was Napoleon born?
Ajaccio, Corsica (recently taken by France) in 1769
felt socially inferior
What was Napoleon's attitude at the academies he attended?
When did Napoleon assume command of the army?
army was idle and demoralised
Describe the condition of the army before Napoleon assumed command
Where were the headquarters of the Italian Campaign?
Why were the generals hostile towards Napoleon at first?
Bonaparte was only 26 years old and was in command of far more experienced generals who had been unsuccessful with the Campaign
honor, glory and wealth
What did Napoleon promise the troops?
decorated them with metals.
What did Napoleon give successful generals?
the Austrian and Piedmontese forces doubled his
What problem did Bonaparte face with the Italian Campaign?
Who did Napoleon face during the Italian Campaign?
Italian state of Piedmont and the Austrian Empire
What was Napoleon's first move for the Campaign?
he turned his attack on Piedmont who quickly sued for an armistice in Cherasco in April 1796
April 1796. Cherasco
When and where did Piedmont sue for an armistice?
Describe the Battle of Lodi
What was the Italian's reaction to Napoleon's conquest?
they hailed the French as their deliverers from Austrian tyranny because Napoleon had used the revolutionary propaganda of liberty which he despised.
Revolutionary propaganda of liberty.
What propaganda did Napoleon use during the Italian campaign? Did he like using it?
The fortress city of Mantua
Where did the Austrian soldiers retreat to after the Battle of Lodi?
What were the soldiers in Mantua waiting for?
Austrian reinforcements to free them from the French
Describe the Battle of Rivoli
Austrian reinforcements were sent to free the soldiers in Mantua.
When was the Battle of Rivoli fought?
Leoben, 100 miles from Vienna
Where did the Austrians sue for peace?
What did Napoleon establish in northern Italy
Describe the Cisalpine Republic
Established by Napoleon in the Po valley.
Why did the Directory want to give Milan back to Austria?
in compensation for Austrian recognition of the French conquest of Belgium
displayed enthusiasm and courage of Napoleon
What were the importances of the Italian Campaign?
What was the major importance of the Italian Campaign?
Bonaparte gained respect of the army and its soldier since he had also done the work intended intended for Jourdan and Moreau single handedly
Why was it important that Napoleon had gained the respect of his soldiers?
Because they now trusted him and believed in him. "The man who controls the army controls the state" - Edmond Burke
Austria Gave up all claims on Belgium
What were the four aspects of the Treaty of Campo Formio of October 1797
Treaty of Campo Formio
In what treaty did Austria give up all claims to Belgium?
Venice was an independent state.
What did the fact that Napoleon gave Venice to Austria show about his character?
What were the two dangers that the Directory faced.
remained quietly in the background except for some award ceremonies.
What did Napoleon do after he returned to France after the Italian Campaign? Why?
The Egyptian Campaign
What was the Directory's solution to the two problems?
How did the Egyptian Campaign help solve the two problems that the Directory had?
- Great Britain: aim was to cut the trade route between Britain and India. India was the main source of England's wealth and, if that were to be severed, England would fall to its kn…
Who was the major English general involved in the Egyptian Campaign?
What island did Napoleon capture on his way to Toulon?
The Island of Malta from the Knights of St. John
What did Napoleon seize when he first arrived in Egypt? Where did he march to?
The Arabs had filled all the drinking wells with stones.
Why was Napoleon forced to march his army in appalling conditions of heat and thirst?
What battle took place in Cairo?
The Battle of the Pyramids where Napoleon defeated the Mamelukes
What news reached Napoleon after the Battle of the Pyramids?
Nelson had attacked and destroyed the French fleet at the bay of Aboukin (Alexandria) on August 1. This isolated the French in Egypt.
He attempted to attack the Sultan of Turkey and re-enter Europe by land.
What did Napoleon try to do as a result of being surrounded in Egypt?
Where did Napoleon suffer his first serious reverse?
What did Napoleon do after his defeat in Acre?
He decided to return to Egypt and defeated a Turkish army who had landed there in his absence
What important news reached Napoleon while he was in Egypt?
Second Coalition had been formed against France and that the Italian territories gained with the Treaty of Campo Formio had been lost to Austria and Russia
How did Napoleon return to France after the Egyptian Campaign?
left General Kleber in command of the forces marooned in Egypt.
there were revolts and the brigandage was rite
How did Napoleon find France upon his return from the Egyptian Campaign?
Where is Mary Antoinette from
Who were Bonaparte's principle supporters in the Coup d'Etat?
- Abbe Sieyes: wished to use Napoleon as a means of bringing about the "perfect constitution" for France
The Council of Elders.
What Council supported Napoleon? What did the Council do to help him?
violently opposed Napoleon when he appeared to address them.
What was the Council of Five Hundred's reaction to Napoleon?
Who saved Napoleon after his violent opposition from the Council of Five Hundred? How?
What was the result of the Coup d'Etat?
The members of the Councils who supported Napoleon abolished the Directory and set up a committee to work out the fourth constitution since 1789 (10 years)
Coup d'Etat of 18 Brumaire
What was Napoleon's seize of power called? When did it occur?
What were the duties of the First Consul?
appointed chief officials of state military and civil
First Consul Proposed bills
Describe the process of creation of laws in the Consulate
What was the Tribunate?
a special assembly which could discuss the bills without being able to vote
How was the Consulate a sham?
appeared to be democratic while almost all the power was in Napoleon's hands
limit of 10 years placed upon his holding of the office
What was the only real check of power on the First Consul?
appointed local officials who became the servants of the central government (Napoleon)
How did Napoleon proceed to change the system of local government set up during the Revolution?
Where was the government centralised after the Coup d'Etat?
in Paris under the direct control of the First Consul
Describe the structure of the Consulate
- Three consuls (First Consul held all the power, other two had no power at all)
battle of Lodi
What were the two main battles of the Italian Campaign?