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Level 81

French Revolution

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Causes of the French Revolution
Money, bad harvest, unfair Estate System, Estates General,
Roman Catholic Church, 1% of population
Second Estate
Third Estate
Bourgeoisies, middle class, peasants
Middle Class, merchants, doctors, lawyers, teachers
The growing class of factory and railroad workers, miners, and urban wage earners.
Estate system
based on social classes
Estates General
legislative body consisting of representatives from all three Estates
The Committee of Public Safety
carried out trials and public executions during the Reign of Terror lead by Maximillian Robespierre
A French political leader of the 18th century. A Jacobin, a radical leader of the French Revolution. Headed the Committee of Public Safety, responsible for the Reign of Terror, was later executed.
Who lost the invasion of Russia
Congress of Vienna
-peace settlement 1814-1815
an increase in Nationalism
Effect of the French Revolution
Louis XVI
Declaration of Rights on man and Citizens
increased the rights of all French citizens
Europeans opposed the French Revolution
because they did not want revolutionary ideas spread to their country
Sun Yat-sen'd Three Principles of the People
a political philosophy to make China a free, prosperous, and powerful nation. The three principles are often translated into and summarized as nationalism, democracy, and the livelihood of the people.
symbolic start to revolution on July 14th 1789, stormed Bastille for weapons
list of grievances
A machine used to behead people; it was suppose to make death quick and painless
Tennis Court Oath
Oath between the members of the Third Estate in which they promised to continue to meet until a new constitution was established.
to add land to a counties territory
Nobles and Clergy that fled France to avoid persecution
Marie Antoinette
Louis XVI's wife, thought to have said "Let them eat cake"
effect of the national debt
worsened the economic crisis in France
Ancient Regime
The old order or when a king is on the throne
Ancien Regime
Old order in France
Social classes
deficit spending
1. spending more money than it collects in taxes (this results in government debt)
Jacques Necker
A financial expert and Louis XIV's adviser.
Estates- General
The legislative body consisting of representatives of the three estates.
Louis XVI
king, clueless, bad decisions, tries to escape
Marquis de Lafayette
Led the National Guard, which Louis XVI allowed to be formed after the Bastille. A champion of liberty, having been involved with the American Revolution.
nobles, clergy and others who fled France during the revolution.
dissenting groups of people
Those who do not wear fancy pants. A rather radical part of the French Revolution.
a government ruled by elected representatives instead of a monarch
French political club that was represented in the National Assembly. Most popular club during the revolution. Wanted to execute the king, a powerful centralized government.
right to vote
Maximillien Robespierre
Jacobin and radical lawyer who became the leader of the Committee of Public Safety. He was known as the incorruptible for his dedication to the revolution and was the chief architect of the Reign of Terror.
Napoleon Bonaparte
French emperor who first gained power after being caused to break up a royalist rebellion in Paris, protecting the Directory (which he eventually got rid of). Also, a former Jacobin.
La Marseillaise
a marching song for the French army which would later become the French National Anthem
A vote by the people.
Napoleonic Code
One law code that everyone must obey with 7 parts
continental system
Napoleon's efforts to block foreign trade with England by forbidding Importation of British goods Into Europe.
guerrilla warfare
An attack run by a small group to ambush the opposing force in a way. Created by the Spanish to attack the French.
scorched earth policy
when the Russians retreated from French invasion and burnt all the crops and villages along the way in order to starve the French soldiers
when a ruler steps down from power
popular acceptance of an authority
Concert of Europe
Alliances helped each other if revolutions broke out
Jean Paul Marat
Radical revolutionary leader who published "The Friend of the People" and promoted violence as a way to achieve the aims of the revolution. He was confined to a medicinal bath where he was eventually murdered by Charlotte Corday.
Jacques-Louis David
French artist and nationalist who painted The Tennis Court Oath, The Death of Marat, and Napoleon Crossing Mont Saint Bernard.
National Assembly
renamed from 3rd estate
Paris Commune
A government that briefly ruled Paris led by radicals who wanted to form their own government.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Similar to the American Declaration of Independence, declared the rights of French citizens. Written by Lafeyette. Very Enlightenment-based.
Olympe de Gouges
Wrote The Rights of Women in 1791, in which she argued that women should have the right to be educated, to control their own property, and to initiate divorce. Didn't demand full rights for women, however.
March on Versailles
'Bread March of Women' was due to bread shortages and increasingly high prices. In 1789 when rumors spread that nobles were hoarding bread, women joined together and stormed Versailles, blaming the situation on Marie Antoinette.
Storming of the Bastille
seen as the beginning of the French Revolution in 1789
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
1790 declaration by the French National Assembly creating a national church with 83 bishops, democratically elected clergy, and state-paid salaries
Constitution of 1791
Constitution created by the French Revolution that had a limited monarchy
Declaration of Pilnitz
the statment made by Austria and Prussia that they would attack France if anything happened to the King or Queen
Legislative Assembly
constitutional monarchy, create laws, war decisions
Maximilien Robespierre
led raid of terror and committee of public safety
Committee of Public Safety
Created by the Convention during the Reign of Terror. Assumed almost dictatorial power of France. Leaders include Danton, Carnot, and Robsepierre (Jacobins).
Reign of Terror
the historic period (1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed
The National Convention
Governed the French Republic from 1792-95, members were elected and put an end to monarchy in France.
The Directory
(1795-1799) 5 person group of conservative men that ruled France after the Reign of Terror; corrupt and unable to fix the problems of France.
French port city; troops marched to a patriotic song as they marched from this city, the song eventually became the French national anthem
ballot in which voters say yes or no to an issue
The Concordat of 1801
Agreement between Napoleon and the Pope, limited the influence and power of the Catholic Church but declared Catholicism the religion of most French citizens.
land added
Battle of Austerlitz
third coalition collapses so Napoleon is able to conquer most of Europe; awakens nationalism
The Grand Army
Combined French armies under Napoleon, nearly 1 million troops were virtually destroyed during Napoleon's ill-fated Russian campaign.
stepped down from power
Battle of the Nations at Leipzig
(1813)Napoleon's army is battered and defeated by nearly all of the nations of Europe who have now allied themselves against Napoleon
Battle of Waterloo
This was the battle that Napoleon lost after his return from Elba that ended his reign as French ruler.
Louis XVI brother, he was the king of France before and after Napoleon's exile.
Prince Matternich
He was the leading statesman in the Congress of Vienna
Duke of Wellington
Leader of the combined British and Prussian army; would defeat Napoleon at Waterloo