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Scientific Revolution & European Enlightenment

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geocentric theory
earth stands sill while the moon, the sun, and all other planets rotate around the earth in a perfect circle
Scientific Revolution
new way of thinking about the natural world, old assumptions with new theories
heliocentric theory
everything revolves around the sun
galileo galilei
built his own telescope and used it to study the heavens
scientific method
logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas
francis Bacon
developed and urged scientists to follow the scientific method experiment and then draw conclusions
rene descartes
isaac newton
brought bacon and descartes views together into a single theory of motion
theory of gravity
every object n the universe attracts every other object. the degree attraction depends on the mass of the objects and the distance between them
a new intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of individuals to solve problems
Thomas Hobbes
Social Contract
An implicit agreement among the members of a society to cooperate for social benefits, for example by sacrificing some individual freedom for state protection. Theories of a social contract became popular in the 16th, 1…
expressed the views that all men were naturally selfish and wicked
natural rights
life, liberty, and right to own property
social critics in france
five core principles
reason, nature, happiness, progress, and liberty
used satire against opponents, (1694-1778) French philosopher. He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also spoke out against the corruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church.
philosophies would meet
epicenter of the enlightenment
jean jacques rousseau
believed in the social contract, A French man who believed that Human beings are naturally good & free & can rely on their instincts. Government should exist to protect common good, and be a democracy
baron de montesquieu
French aristocrat who wanted to limit royal absolutism; Wrote The Spirit of Laws, urging that power be separated between executive, legislative, and judicial branches, each balancing out the others, thus preventing despotism and preserving free…
mary wollstonecraft
argued women need education to become virtuous and useful
created the encyclopedia
books to help scholars learn
enlightened despot
absolute rulers who used their power to bring about political and social change to help their people. Catherine the Great is considered this.
frederick the great
(1712-1786), King of Prussia from 1740 to 1786. Enlightened despot who enlarged Prussia by gaining land from Austria when Maria Theresa became Empress.
joseph II
(r. 1765 - 1790) son of Maria Theresa, granted religious freedom and abolished serfdom
Catherine the Great
ruled Russia from 1762 to 1796, added new lands to Russia, encouraged science, art, literature, supported education for women, build schools and hospitals and museums. Russia became one of Europe's most powerful nations
seven years war
another name for the french and indian war
2 continental congress
petitioned king george the second to remove taxes
declaration of independence
Checks and Balances
Not wanting any ONE branch to get too powerful, the Founding Fathers gave each branch certain ways to limit the power of the other two.
Bill of Rights
Recognized by William and Mary which limited the powers of the monarchy, prohibited Catholics from occupying he throne and guaranteed the role of Parliament in government
us constitution
set up a strong central government with checks and balances
those who supported the Constitution and a strong federal government, most numerous on Atlantic Coast
state of nature
A condition in which there is no government.
A legislature consisting of the house of lords and the houese of commons, half were elected while half were appointed
stamp act
1765; law that taxed printed goods, including: playing cards, documents, newspapers, etc.
two treatises of government
A book written by John Locke which stated details about natural rights and that people were born with and entitled to life, liberty, and property.
Clear and ordered thinking.
edict of tolerance
Issued in 1782 by Joseph II, it repealed anti-Jewish legislation in the Holy Roman Empire and was supposed to "make the Jewish nation useful and serviceable to the State".
immanuel kant
(1724-1804) German philosopher who thought that the mind comes into the world with certain inborn assumptions or predilections with which it molds experience.