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Level 66

English Enlightenment

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What major events changed the city of London?
a raging fire that burned over four days, where approximately 100,000 homes and businesses were destroyed
What kind of city is the new London?
center of literacy arts and scientific thinking and soon become the home of the 17th century intellectuals who were determined in their efforts to rid English society of irrational superstitions and tyranny
The theory that the monarch is supreme and can exercise full and complete power unilaterally.
the belief that people should be as free as possible from government restraint
Thomas Hobbes
Hobbes wrote that without government, life would be poor, nasty, brutish, and short. Presented the idea of the social contract. Leviathan
John Locke
Wrote Two Treatises on Government as justification of Glorious Revolution and end of absolutism in England. He argued that man is born good and has rights to life, liberty, and property. To protect these rig…
Social Contract
An implicit agreement among the members of a society to cooperate for social benefits, for example by sacrificing some individual freedom for state protection. Theories of a social contract became popular in the 16th, 1…
Why did John Locke disagree with Hobbes?
he believed that people are nature "free, equal and independent" so they do not need to surrender their freedom to the ruler
What is the significance of John Milton's poem, Paradise Lost?
it exemplifies the tensions between an absolute ruler and the civil liberties of the individual
Adam and Eve
What biblical story serves a the background in Paradise Lost?
William Hogarth
painter, printer, writer and publisher who uses satire and irony to criticize the government
What "means" does Hogarth use to criticize the Industrial Revolution?
drunkenness, prostitution, idleness, crime and robbery, assault, all lead to social ruin and destruction
Queens ware
products that were endorsed by the queen
What new economic system emerges from the industrial revolution?
new scientific machines and factories were located in the cities so it caused people to more to the cities to work
Joseph Addison and Richard Steele
writers and good friends with different temperaments that collaborated together to write a new kind of written text
What were Addison and Steele's publications about?
periodical essay that examine philosophical, economic, political, medical, and scientific theories of the day
What were Addison and Steele's goal?
to raise the level of literacy and sophistication within the English society