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Level 463

Vietnam War

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Domino Theory
President Eisenhower's theory that if Vietnam fell communist, other countries would also soon fall communist; like dominoes. Therefore, it was important to keep Vietnam from falling communist
1946 - 1954 an organization of Vietnamese Communists and other nationalist groups that fought for Vietnamese independence from the French
Geneva Accords
Agreement between French and Vietnamese that divided Vietnam into two separate countries
Viet Cong
North Vietnamese sympathizers who fought against the US using guerilla tactics
National Liberation Front
The political arm of the Viet Cong (Marc, 795)
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
This law allowed the president to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the U.S. to prevent further aggression in Vietnam.
Ho Chi Minh
North Vietnamese communist leader
Ngo Dinh Diem
Corrupt, oppressive, and unpopular leader of South Vietnam. At first, he was supported by the US but was later overthrown and executed by his own government officials
Robert McNamara
One of the Americans who helped create the Kennedy administration's Vietnam policy. McNamara (republican) became one of Kennedy's closest advisors on Vietnam, being the secretary of defense. Alex pg 794
What events led to the war between North and South Vietnam?
just the threat of becoming communist, North Vietnam wanted all of Vietnam to be communist (p. 793) Nyah, Carey, and Merhawi
What were the Vietnam policies of President Kennedy and Robert McNamara?
Determined to stop the spread of communism, put 16,000 advisors in Vietnam.-Lowell 793-794
What were the results of the Geneva Accords?
It caused Vietnam to divide into two countries at the 17th parallel. Sam pg. 793
How did President Johnson change the course of the Vietnam War?
That North Vietnamese torpedo boats attacked US destroyers although the attacks never occurred. Kelsey pg. 796
Why did American officials support the overthrow of Diem's government?
Diem was corrupt and he lost the self confidence of the South Vietnamese Emily
After this, the president gained almost all control over the actions in Vietnam [Brian] p.796
How did the Gulf of Tonkin resolution affect the balance of power between the President and Congress?
Land mine
An explosive device planted in the ground. Annalyn pg. 800
Saturation bombing
...Air raids that dropped thousands of tons of explosives over large areas....Carey AND #801...
Fragmentation Bombing
A type of bombing using a bomb that, upon explosion, causes pieces of its thick metal casings to be thrown in all directions. (Textbook pg. 986) -Austin
Agent Orange
spray on Vietnamese jungles; killed environment, making it harder for Viet Cong to hide; Caused cancer in many soldiers
gradual military expansion of the war conflict, Johnson gave more American money and personnel to prop up the South Vietnamese government -Stuart pg. 801
Ho Chi Minh Trail
Supply route from North Vietnam to Viet Cong in South Vietnam
supporters of war
opposers of war
Tet Offensive
Surprise attack by NVA and Viet Cong on major cities in the South during a Vietnamese holiday; military victory for US, but political victory for V.C; was the turning point in the war
Lt. William L Calley
Lieutenant who was responsible for the My Lai Massacre where he ordered over 400 vietnamese to line up and be killed Pg. 803 Anna
All the frustrations of guerrilla warfare -Leah (page 799)
What did American Soldiers encounter when they first arrived in Vietnam?
What did American Soldiers experience on the battlefield?
They had to fight in swamps and jungles in the boiling heat, fighting people who were familiar with the landscape, and the American soldiers were always under threat of being ambushed. (page 799)- Ross
Why did the early military action result in a stalemate?
American troops were trying to force the enemy to stop fighting rather then to conquer them and the enemy's will could not be deterred. Miles PG# 802
How were Agent Orange and Napalm used during the War?
They were used in carpet bombing attacks. Ben B/ Pg.801
Generation Gap
Differences in opinions, tastes and behavior between those of different generations.
New Left
Coalition of younger members of the Democratic party and radical student groups. Believed in participatory democracy, free speech, civil rights and racial brotherhood, and opposed the war in Vietnam.
Special session of lecture and disscusion on a controversal topic that often occurred during the Viatnam War era. Daniel pg 988
conscientious objector
Person who refuses to enter the military or bear arms due to moral or religious reasons
Official postponement, as in a postponement of compulsory military service. -Jack p.808
Middle America
term sometimes used to describe mainstream Americans (Kayla)
Students for a Democratic Society
An student activist movement that supported student power and the civil rights, also its the main representation of the new left. (Landon, P. 806-808)
Paris Peace Talks
Intended to establish peace in Vietnam and an end to the Vietnam War, ended direct U.S. military involvement, and temporarily stopped the fighting between North and South Vietnam. Lucas (Wikipedia)
Program started by Nixon to make South Vietnam responsible for its own defense while slowly pulling US troops out of Vietnam
Silent Majority
a reference Nixon used to describe a large group of Americans who firmly supported war in Vietnam and did not agree with those who protest against the war. -Spencer p.813-814
Prisoner Of War (pg. 816, Jazmyn)
Missing In Action - Cates (pg. 816)
Kent State
A college in Ohio where students rebelled against the president decisions, but soldiers fired tear gas, then bullets. (p. 814) Jaila
Jackson State
Jackson State University is a historically black university in Jackson, Mississippi, United States. -Morgan
What did Nixon claim during the presidential campaign of 1968?
Nixon was going to get our country out of the Vietnam War. -Joseph (p.810)
What was the basic idea behind the policy of Vietnamization?
To slowly take out American troops and either replace them with South Vietnamese troops or more carpet bombing. 813(Shaylan)
Why did Nixon withdraw troops from Vietnam and order bombing raids at the same time?
Nixon wanted to defuse anti-war sentiment at home, but he also did not want to loose the war.Lindsay 813
Why did Nixon widen the war by sending ground forces into Cambodia?
He said he wanted to clear out communist camps in Cambodia, but his main goal was to strengthen the American the American position at the peace talks. Katie (pg. 813)
What did Nixon's invasion into Cambodia lead to?
the invasion lead to chaos and civil war in Cambodia (Jackson p. 813)
North Vietnam slowly overcame South Vietnam. Jay pg 815
After the United States withdrew from Vietnam, what happened to South Vietnam?
What was the final legacy of the Vietnam War: US Deaths?
Over 58,000 American Soldiers died in the Vietnam War. Connor ( video)
What was the final legacy of the Vietnam War: POWs and MIAs?
More than 2,500 Americans were listed as POW's (prisoner of war) and MIA's (missing in action) at the end of the war. Pg. 816 Trey
What was the final legacy of the Vietnam War: Money Spent?
The United States spent $150 billion on war. -Louisa (pg 816)
There were roughly 3.1 million Vietnamese casualties. (Teddy (pg 500)
What was the final legacy of the Vietnam War: Vietnamese Casualties?
Peace Corps
set up by JFK as an effort to help out third world countries
Fidel Castro
..., Cuban revolutionary leader who overthrew the corrupt regime of the dictator Fulgencio Batista in 1959 and soon after established a Communist state. He was prime minister of Cuba from 1959 to 1976 and…
berlin wall
A wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
Cuban Missile Crisis
the US discovers nuclear missiles are on their way to cuba so they take action and the ships from russia turn around
Neil Armstrong
1st person to walk on the moon during Apollo 11 in 1969; "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind."
Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin
American astronauts who walked on the moon with Neil Armstrong
South Vietnam
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
gave the president the authority "to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States."
Willliam Westmoreland
commanded the U.S. ground forces involved in Vietnam
search-and-destroy missions
where U.S. patrols searched for hidden enemy camps, then destroyed them with massive firepower and air raids.
Believed in anti-materalism, free use of drugs, they had a casual attitude toward sex and anti-conformity, (1960s) practiced free love and took drugs, flocked to San Francisco- low …
Richard M. Nixon
Eisenhower's vice presidential running mate
Henry Kissinger
National security advisor for President Nixon; had secret negotiations with a North Vietnamese negotiationist Le Duct Tho
Twenty-sixth Amendment
ratified in 1971, lowered the federal voting age from 21 to 18
War Powers Act
Limits the presidents ability to send troops over seas
Vietnam Veterans Memorial
Designed by Maya Ying Lin, the black granite memorial lists the names of dead or missing American soldiers
Dean Rusk
the Secretary of State during the Vietnam war
Willian Westmoreland
the US commander in South Vietnam who continued to request more troops
Army of the Republic of Vietnam
the forces in South Vietnam; Westmoreland did not think that they were a strong enough army to defend South Vietnam without assistance in the incoming war
Search and Destroy Missions
uprooting civilians with suspected ties to the Vietcong and destroying their homes and property
Credibility gap
this was growing because of the difference between reports from the LBJ administration and TV footage of the Vietnam War
law requiring certain people to serve in the miltary
the new left
the frowing youth movement. It demanded huge change instead of moving towards socialist policy
an antiestablishment New Left group, founded in 1960, this group charged that corporations and large government institutions had taken over America; they called for a restoration of "participatory democracy" and greater individual freedom
Free Speech Movement
Clark Clifford
became the new Secretary of Defense around 1968
Robert Kennedy
advised JFK to use a naval blockade to deal with the Russians during the Cuban Missile Crisis.
eugene mccarthy
leader of the doves and announces he will run for president
Hubert Humphrey
LBJ's vice president ran against McCarthy in the primary and was expected to be the Democratic Nominee
George Wallace
1919-1998. Four time governor of Alabama. Most famous for his pro-segregation attitude and as a symbol for states' rights.
My Lai Massacre
American soldiers lined up Viet Cong (citizen) women, elders, and children and killed them
Kent State
Ohio college where an anti-war protest got way out of hand, the Nat'l Guard was called in and killed 3 students (innocent & unarmed,wounded 9) in idiscriminate fire of M-1 rifles
Pentagon Papers
Government documents that showed the public had been lied to about the status of the war in Vietnam