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Civil War 1850-1865

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What are the reasons for the civil war?
Failure of the political system. Different groups unable to compromise, particularly in matters of slavery that lead to the succeeding of Southern states
What happened during the elsction of 1860?
The democrats broke off into 2 factions of southern and northern
The Republicans
What did the Northern democrats become?
Abe Lincoln
Who was leader of the new Republican Party
Free Labour
Which ideology did the Republicans support?
What did a free labor ideology encourage?
Working hard in order to improve ones status in society. Would reap the rewards of ones labour
Southern Slavery
What was the free labor ideology a threat to?
Why was their so much concern over Western territories
West was undecided on if it wanted slave or free labour. Which ever one it picked would make either the south or north a minority power
His stance against slavery
What made Abe Lincoln particularly popular with Northern voters?
Lincoln's election as president
What event finally made the South succeed?
620,000 men
How many men are estimated to have died during the civil war?
A skewed sex ratio, predominantly more women than men now in society
What was one of the consequences due to the wars high death toll?
What role did technology play in the war?
Was becoming more advanced, one of the main contributing factors to the high death tool
What was one of the main weapons now in use during the civil war?
The rifled musket. Was much more powerful, easier to load and had more effective bullets
Large charges against the enemy
What was one of the military's most ineffective tactics?
Trench warefare
What did the ineffectiveness of large charges lead to?
What was a 'Destroyer General'?
Someone who tool charge and accepted the fact that there must be a great deal of loss in order to win the war. Must take the entirety of an enemies society in order to be successful
Ulysses S. Grant and William Tecumsen
Who are examples of famous 'Destroyer Generals'?
What were the main achievements of the Civil War?
The end of slavery, laying the foundations of modern America and the restoration of the Union
An opportunity for freedom
What did war mean to African American slaves?
What did the Emancipation Proclamation do?
Freed slaves from their owners and encouraged them to join Union armies the fight the Cofederacy
January 1963
When was the Emancipation Proclamation issued?
How did power shift during this period
Moved from largely Southern control to now dominated by Capitalist North. The 3/5's rule before emancipation largely contributed to the previous status quo
Which aspect of society increased due to the Civil War?
What did Abe Lincoln approve to be built inn order to help economic growth?
The trans continental rail road. Would allow Rupublican free labor to expand to California
New national currency
What came with the new banking system established by Lincoln's government?
Which American ideal was reborn during this era?
Violence and competing ideologies
Overall, what characterized the Civil War?
Stephen Douglas
Senator from Illinois, author of the Kansas-Nebraska Act and the Freeport Doctrine, argues in favor of popular sovereignty
Ulysses S. Grant
Commander of the Army of the Potomac (Union Army) from 1864-1865, had fought successfully in the West prior
Robert E. Lee
Was torn by the decision to support the Union join the Confederacy. He decided to join the confederacy because he didnt want to fight against his birthplace, Virginia, which had seceded. He fought in…
Abraham Lincoln
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)
Bleeding Kansas
(1856) a series of violent fights between pro-slavery and anti-slavery forces in Kansas who had moved to Kansas to try to influence the decision of whether or not Kansas would a slave state or a free state.
Compromise of 1850
Before the War, Gave North and South part of what they wanted. (1) California admitted as free state, (3) resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries, (5) slave trade abolished in DC, and (6) new fugitive s…
Dred Scott v. Sanford
A landmark 1857 Supreme Court decision that effectively ruled that slaves were property. Dred Scott, a slave to a Southern army doctor, had lived with his master in Illinois and Wisconsin in the 1830s. W…
Emancipation Proclamation
Went into effect on 1/1/1863; ends slavery in rebelling states/areas of the Confederacy and turns the way into a war against slavery.
Free-Soil Party
Made up of antislavery advocates from all political parties. Slogan was "Free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men." Held some of the same beliefs as Old Whigs (eg American System). Nominated van B…
Fugitive Slave Act
Escaped slaves must be returned to masters (part of Compromise of 1850)
Lecompton Constitution
Drafted by pro-slavery government that stated that if citizens voted for no slavery, the rights of slaveholders in the territory would be protected. Buchanan supported this, while Douglas and others in the Senate opposed…
Popular Sovereignty
Let the people decide on whether slavery should be allowed in territories through voting.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Popular book by Harriet Beecher Stowe focusing on the negatives of slavery.
Jefferson Davis
Confederate President
Fort Sumter
The "Battle" that started the war. When South Carolina seceded from the Union on December 20, 1860, United States Maj. Robert Anderson and his force of 85 soldiers were positioned at Fort Moultrie near…
Battle of Bull Run
1861, 1st major battle, proved war was going to be long and costly. Confederates won.
William T. Sherman
A Union general and friend of Grant that was given command of the March to the Sea. One of the more competent of the Union generals. He waged "total war" on the South.
Confederate States of America
After 4 days of the election results, SC voted to secede from the Union. 6 more states in the next 6 weeks seceded. They formed in February 1861 the CSA with Jefferson Davis as President.
a vocal faction of Democrats located in the Northern United States of the Union who opposed the American Civil War, wanting an immediate peace settlement with the Confederates. Also called Peace Democrats
September 17th, 1862. Bloodiest single day in U.S. history. It is a Union Victory.
The Emancipation Proclamation
In 1863, Lincoln declared forever free the slaves inside the Confederacy. The EP did not apply to Union slave states, nor those under Union control. The EP clearly established the war was being fought…
Confederacy's strategy
hold onto as much territory as possible, sometimes take the offensive, move armies north to threaten Washington DC
The Ironclads
The battle between the Union Monitor and the Confederate Merrimack changed naval warfare for ever. Both vessels were clad in iron.
The Battle of Gettysburg
Lee invades the North. Confederates lose in a three day battle. The turning point of the Civil War.
The Gettysburg Address
A speech given by President Lincoln in 1863 is considered one of the most important in history, as it defined the principles of liberty and equality on which the government of the United States was founded
List two advantages of the Union and two advantages of the Confederacy during the war.
Union's advantages
The Union's advantages over the Confederacy include manufacturing, population, weapons, railroads, and the Navy
Confederacy's advantages
Better generals, initial fighting spirit, know the land
The Draft, a list of the young men that are ready to be enlisted in the army.
Appomattox Court House
Lee surrendered to Grant in this town.
Both sides used local men as a homeguard. These men searched for deserters, enforcing the draft laws and gathering intelligence
9 month Siege, Union army reduced Southern supplies and numbers, soldiers lived in trenches, North victory, crater incident happened here
The Election of 1864
Lincoln was elected for a second term. The Republican victory reinforced the Union commitment to emancipation. 13th Amendment banning slavery would follow.
Thirteenth Amendment
an 1865 amendment to the United States Constitution that bans slavery throughout the nation
In May and June of 1863, Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's armies converged on Vicksburg, investing the city and entrapping a Confederate army under Lt. Gen. John Pemberton. On July 4, Vicksburg surrendered after prolo…
Election of 1860
Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party in the South was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a numbe…
Lincoln's 1st Inaugural
he rejected the right to secession but denied any intention of interfering with slavery in the states
Conscription (Draft)
law required men to serve in the military
Stonewall Jackson
Brave commander of the Confederate Army that led troops at Bull Run. He died in the confusion at the Battle of Chancellorsville.
Battle of Antietam
Landmark battle in the Civil War that essentially ended in a draw but demonstrated the powess of the Union army, forestalling the foreign intervention and giving Lincoln the "victory" he needed to issue the Emancipation Proclamation
Battle Hymn of the Republic
An American patriotic hymn from the Civil War by Julia Ward Howe, who wrote it after a visit to an encampment of the Union Army. The tune is that of John Brown's Body.
Battle of Gettysburg
Civil War battle in Pennsylvania that ended in Union victory, spelling doom for the Confederacy, which never again managed to invade the North. Site of General George Pickett's daring but doomed charge on the Northern lines.
Gettysburg Address
Lincoln's speech to honor fallen soldiers
Battle of Vicksburg
Town under siege in 1863. Union victory which cut the Confederacy in two.
William Carney
first African American to be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for his Acts of bravery on the Assault of Fort Wagner.
Philip Bazaar
born in Chile was the first Hispanic-American to be awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor in the assault of Fort Fisher.
Election of 1864
5 political parties supported candidates for the presidency: War Democrats, Peace Democrats, Copperheads, Radical Republicans, & National Union Party; each political party offered a diff. point of view on how the war should be…
Second Inaugural Address
the phrases "with malice toward none" and "charity for all" were used by Lincoln in his second inaugural address where Lincoln sought to assure the South that the North would be kind in reuniting…
John Wilkes Booth
was an American stage actor who, as part of a conspiracy plot, assassinated Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865.
Fredrick Douglass
encourages blacks to enlist in the Union Army during the Civil War
Swing Low, Sweet Chariot
Julia Ward Howe
The Battle Hymn of the Republic
Sojourner Truth
United States abolitionist and feminist who was freed from slavery and became a leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women
Ambrose Bierce
An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge
Walt Whitman
poet who wrote Leaves of Grass and revolutionized American literature by linking the Romantic, Transcendental, and Realist movements
Stephen Crane
Do not weep, Maiden, for War is Kind
Mississippi River
Control of this river would cut the Confederacy in half
men and women who had been slaves
rebuilding of the South after the Civil War
Black codes
1865-6 Southern laws that severely limited the rights of African Americans after the Civil War, Any code of law that defined and especially limited the rights of former slaves after the Civil War.- Primary pur…
Radical Republicans
members of Congress during Reconstruction who favored protection for black rights and wanted to ensure that freedmen received the right to vote - this was a precondition for readmission of Southern states into the Un…
Fourteenth Amendment
an 1868 amendment to the United States Constitution that guarantees equal protection of the laws, A constitutional amendment giving full rights of citizenship to all people born or naturalized in the United States, except for American Indians.
Radical Reconstruction
Congress takes charge. period beginning in 1867, when the Republicans who had control in both houses of Congress, took charge of Reconstruction. They favored policy that would give Federal gov authority to limit the polit…
white Southerner who supported the Republicans during Reconstruction, A derogatory term for Southerners who were working with the North to buy up land from desperate Southerners
during Reconstruction, white southerners who resisted change
Ku Klux Klan
(A grassroots vigilante movement) Organized in Tennessee in 1866, secret society organized after the Civil War to reassert white supremacy by means of violence
person who rents a plot of land from another person and farms it in exchange for a share of the crop
poll tax
tax required before a person can vote, A tax of a fixed amount per person and payable as a requirement for the right to vote
legal separation of people based on racial, ethnic, or other differences
New South
term to describe the South in the late 1800s when efforts were made to expand the economy by building up industry, The rise of a South after the Civil War which would no longe…
Compromise of 1877
-Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river; as long as Hayes became the president
border states
The Border States were slave states that shared a border with free states to the north. These included Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, Kentucky and Missouri. As a rule, the Border States maintained strong cultural ties …
George McClellan
Commanded the Army of the Potomac. Fought in the Eastern Theater. His plan was to land northern forces on a peninsula between the York and James Rivers southeast of Richmond and then march on…
Freedman's Bureau
established in 1865 by Congress to help former black slaves and poor whites in the South in the aftermath of the U.S. Civil War (1861-65). Some 4 million slaves gained their freedom as a re…
Thaddeus Stevens
Man behind the 14th Amendment, which ends slavery. Stevens and President Johnson were absolutely opposed to each other. Known as a Radical Republican.
Charles Sumner
A leader of the Radical republicans along with Thaddeus Stevens. He was from Massachusetts and was in the senate. His two main goals were breaking the power of wealthy planters and ensuring that freedmen could vote
Edwin Stanton
Andrew Johnson tried to force him to resign.