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On the Brink of Civil War, 1848-1860

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Franklin Pierce (President in 1853-57)
Signed the Gadsden Purchase with Mexico.
Gadsden Purchase (1853)
Transferred parts of New Mexico and Arizona to US. Caused controversy over slavery to rage all over the nation.
Used passages from the Bible to justify slavery.
George Fitzhugh
A leader of the apologist movement. Declared that slaves were happy and well clothed, fed, and housed by slave owners. Wrote "Cannibals All" and argued African-American slaves were better than the "Northern wage slave."
Election of 1848
Brought a 3rd political party, encouraged by the Wilmot Proviso. Free-Soil Party (van Buren) vs. Whigs (Zach Taylor) vs. Democrats (Lewis Cass). Taylor defeated Cass and won the presidency.
Free-Soil Party
Made up of antislavery advocates from all political parties. Slogan was "Free soil, free speech, free labor, and free men." Held some of the same beliefs as Old Whigs (eg American System). Nominated van B…
Popular Sovereignty
Let the people decide on whether slavery should be allowed in territories through voting.
With the discovery of gold in 1848, 49ers flocked to the west to dig for gold.
Host to many gold rushes. Drafted a new constitution to apply for statehood and forbade slavery. Taylor accepted California which caused another controversy.
The Great Compromiser Henry Clay
Came up with a compromise to avert war. His plan would admit California as a free state, divide the Mexican cession into Mexico and Utah Territories with popular sovereignty. Also banned slave trade in Washin…
Fugitive Slave Law
One term of Compromise of 1850- _______ which states property is property no matter where it goes, from now on all gov't officials have to assist in rounding up escaped slaves
Taylor dies of cholera
VP Millard Fillmore took the presidency and helped pass the compromise bill. Senator Stephen A. Douglas split the bill and passed each piece separately.
Compromise of 1850
Before the War, Gave North and South part of what they wanted. (1) California admitted as free state, (3) resolution of Texas-New Mexico boundaries, (5) slave trade abolished in DC, and (6) new fugitive s…
Harriet Beecher Stowe
author of "Uncle Tom's Cabin"
Election of 1852
Democrat Franklin Pierce was elected. This brought Whig Party closer to death since they ignored slavery issue completely.
Stephen A. Douglas
Illinois Senator. Proposed to divide Nebraska Territory into two regions - Nebraska and Kansas. Declared popular sovereignty for both regions. Both regions above 36 30' line of Missouri Compromise of 1820. If Kansas-Nebraska Act…
Kansas-Nebraska Act
1854 - Created Nebraska and Kansas as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty.
Republican Party
Due to the emancipation Proclamation and Reconstruction amendments, African Americans were loyal to
Border Ruffians
Pro-slavery farmers from Missouri that would settle in the border of Kansas. Henry Ward Beecher and other abolitionists would set up home in Kansas to combat these pro-slavery advocates.
Bleeding Kansas
(1856) a series of violent fights between pro-slavery and anti-slavery forces in Kansas who had moved to Kansas to try to influence the decision of whether or not Kansas would a slave state or a free state.
Lecompton Constitution
Drafted by pro-slavery government that stated that if citizens voted for no slavery, the rights of slaveholders in the territory would be protected. Buchanan supported this, while Douglas and others in the Senate opposed…
John Brown
Abolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia.
Capitol Hill
Senator Charles Sumner spoke of the injustice in Kansas and defamed Senator Andrew Butler. Preston Brooks, who was Butler's nephew, beat Sumner over the head with his cane.
Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857)
SC under Roger Taney declared 36 30' of the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional and all Afr-Amers. were not citizens, thus making them unable to sue in court. Scott was considered property.
Harper's Ferry
John Brown and his followers staged a raid on a federal arsenal in Virginia. He wanted to arm slaves to overthrow the whites and create a free black state. They were then captured and hanged for treason.
Freeport Doctrine
Idea authored by Stephen Douglas that claimed slavery could only exist when popular sovereignty said so
Election of 1860
Lincoln, the Republican candidate, won because the Democratic party in the South was split over slavery. As a result, the South no longer felt like it has a voice in politics and a numbe…
A fourth party that joined in the election of 1860.
Constitutional Union Party
Whigs and moderates that were concerned for the end of the Union by a Lincoln victory. They chose John Belle of Tennessee to prevent secession.
Confederate States of America
After 4 days of the election results, SC voted to secede from the Union. 6 more states in the next 6 weeks seceded. They formed in February 1861 the CSA with Jefferson Davis as President.
KY Senator John Crittenden
Proposed a final amendment to the Constitution that would protect the right of slave owners below the 36 30' line and instutute popular sovereignty in new states. Lincoln rejected it.
Gadsden Purchase
Acquired southern territory from Mexico
George Fitzgugh
Said slaves were happy under the peculiar institution
Free Soil Party
Nominated Martin Van Buren in the election of 1848. They were against slavery
Henry Clay's Compromise
California would be a free state, Utah and New Mexico would be left to popular soverignty, DC would be a free state, and Texas would be reimbursed. A stricter fugitive slave law would be in place
Kansas Nebraska Act
1854 - Douglas: Created Nebraska (north) and Kansas (south) as states and gave the people in those territories the right to chose to be a free or slave state through popular sovereignty. North disliked…
Dred Scott vs. Sanford
Declared the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional and claimed that blacks were not meant to have rights