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Level 338

Political Parties Emerge

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Where else did the opinions differ other than the president's cabinet?
The differences found in Washington's cabinet also existed in Congress and among the public.
What did these opinions form?
They formed the basis for two distinct political parties that emerged at this time.
The Federalists and The Democratic-Republicans
What were the 2 political parties?
What did the Federalist Believe?
They believed the Constitution gave government "implied" powers. These implied powers are not enumerated, or listed clearly in the Constitution. Instead, Federalists believed the enumerated powers imply the power to do other things. Federalists beli…
What did the Democratic-Republicans Believe?
Jefferson and Madison led this faction. They believed in a strict reading of the Constitution. They rejected the Federalist idea of implied powers. They believed congressional powers were limited to what is absolutely necessar…
What powers did the constitution give to the congress?
The Constitution gave Congress specific powers to do such things as issue and borrow money.
What did Jefferson and Hamilton disagree on about the bank?
To Hamilton, this implied that the federal government could create a bank to help with these tasks. Jefferson disagreed.
What did the Federalists think about the people?
Federalists supported representative government, in which elected officials ruled in the people's name. They did not believe it was wise to let the public become too involved in politics.
What did Federalists believe about what kind of people should run government?
thought that educated, wealthier men should hold public officice. They did not trust ordinary people to make good decisions
What did Republicans believe?
The Republicans feared a strong central government controlled by only a few people.
What did the Republicans think of their liberty?
They believed that democracy and liberty would be safe only if ordinary people took part fully in government
What troubled Washington?
The growing differences between the parties—and between Hamilton and Jefferson—troubled President Washington
Did Washington succeed in getting Adams and Hamilton to work together?
Washington's efforts to get Jefferson and Hamilton to work together failed
What happened because of this split?
The split was so strong that Jefferson left the cabinet and his job as secretary of state
WHo followed Jefferson leaving the cabinet?
Soon afterward, Hamilton resigned as secretary of the treasury
What happened approaching the Election of 1796?
As the election of 1796 approached, the two parties each prepared to seek control of the presidency.
What is a caucus?
a meeting of members of a political party to choose candidates for upcoming elections
How did they prepare for presidency?
To prepare for the election, both parties held caucuses
Which candidates did the Federalists choose?
The Federalists chose John Adams and Charles Pinckney
Who did the Republicans choose?
The Republicans chose Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr.
Where did the strength of the Federalists and the Republicans come from?
The Federalists carried the New England region. Republican strength lay in the Southern states.
John Adams
The younger cousin of Samuel Adams, a successful lawyer
What would not happen today that happened with the president and vice president?
The administration that took office on March 4, 1797, had a Federalist president and a Republican vice president.
What was John Adams known for?
John Adams spent most of his life in public service. He was well-known as one of Massachusetts's most active patriots in the period before and during the Revolutionary War
How long did he serve for the vice presidency before taking the presidency and how was his vice presidency?
He served two terms as vice president under Washington before becoming president. His time in office, however, was troubled.
What was the XYZ affair?
a 1797 French attempt to bribe the United States by demanding money before discussing French seizure of neutral American ships
Why did Americans grow suspicious of aliens?
When the public found out about the XYZ affair, many grew angry at foreign attempts to influence their government
What is an alien?
a person living in a country who is not a citizen of that country
What were Americans thinking about when they heard of war with France?
Many Europeans who had come to the United States in the 1790s supported the ideals of the French Revolution. Some Americans questioned whether these aliens would remain loyal if the United States went to war with France.
What is sedition?
activities aimed at weakening the established government by inciting resistance or rebellion to authority
What did the Alien and Sedition Acts allow?
The Alien and Sedition Acts allowed the president to imprison aliens. The president could also deport—send out of the country— those thought to be dangerous.
Who made resolutions to these Acts that had them unpassed?
Madison and Jefferson wrote statements of protest that the Virginia and Kentucky legislatures passed as resolutions.
to legally overturn
What does nullify mean?
What did the Kentucky Resolution further say?
he Kentucky Resolution further said that states could nullify (NUH luh fy)—legally overturn—federal laws they thought were unconstitutional.
states' rights?
the idea that states should have all powers that the Constitution does not give to the federal government or forbid to the states
What did america do to keep the federal government from becoming to powerful?
To prevent the federal government from becoming too powerful, the states should have all other powers not expressly forbidden to them.
What treaty was signed by France in 1800?
the French agreed to a treaty and stopped their attacks on American ships. Though it had bene?fits for the United States, the agreement with France was unpopular and hurt Adams's chance for reelection.
What happened because of this?
The Federalists were now split. This improved Democratic-Republican hopes for winning the presidency in the 1800 election.
How were the federalists affected by the XYZ and Adam's presidency?
It split and weakened the federalist party and allowed the Democratic Republicans to come to power