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Presidency of Thomas Jefferson

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Thomas Jefferson
drafted the Constitution; shared Locke's ideas
Jefferson was
a Democratic-Republican, Jeffersonians were starting to be called Republicans. They were not like present day Republicans.
The Jefferson Revolution
a revolution of 1800 in the principles of our government. The Federalists lost control of the presidency and peacefully turned over control of the federal government.
Election of 1800
Thomas Jefferson vs John Adams vs Aaron Bur, Tie between Aaron Burr and Thomas Jefferson which went to the House of Representatives. Jefferson won the presidency
Election of 1800 was decided by the House of Representatives because
Jefferson and Burr each received 73 votes in the Electoral College so it was a tie. Alexander Hamilton persuaded three members of the House to vote for Jefferson. This brought about the 12th amendment.
What was so different about the Jefferson Revolution?
This was the first time in modern history that the political control of a country passed from one political party to another through a democratic election.
When a person or a country is able to choose its own leader.
US troops remain in South Korea today.
after a bitter election Jefferson said
All, too, will bear in mind this sacred principle...that the minority possess their equal rights, which equal law must protect,...We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists.
12th Amendment
Brought about by the Jefferson/Burr tie, stated that presidential and vice-presidential nominees would run on the same party ticket. Before that time, all of the candidates ran against each other, with the winner becoming president and second-place becoming vice-president.
What did Jefferson mean when he said we are all Republicans....Federalists
despite the public distrust in democracy, Federalists recognized that problems are finally settled by the will of the people and that despite their distrust, Republicans do not propose to destroy the federal government
those who supported the Constitution and a strong federal government, most numerous on Atlantic Coast
Idea that the government shouldn't play an active role in regulating the economy.
As President Jefferson
hired Albert Gallatin as secretary of the treasury. He and the president cut military spending, cut down the army from 4,000 to 2,00 men. Reduced the naval fleet from 25 to 7 ships. Cut…
how much spending did Jefferson cut?
he cut the national debt from 83 million to 45 million. Because of this, they ended all internal taxes. The government's only source of money was tariffs on imports and revenue from the sale of Western lands.
Did Jefferson think he was raising enough money through tariffs and sale of land to run the country?
he felt he had enough for roads, education, arts and other public works. He did not renew the Alien and Sedition acts
Alien and Sedition Acts
authorized the president to deport any aliens considered dangerous and to detain any enemy aliens in a time of war and made it illegal for newspaper editors to criticize either the president or Congress and imposed heavy penalties
Conflict with the Judicial Branch
before Jefferson became president, the Federalists in congress passed the Judiciary Act of 1801
Judiciary Act of 1801
a law that increased the number of federal judges, allowing President John Adams to fill most of the new posts with Federalists. Republicans argued packing the courts with Federalist judges was unfair
Midnight judge
a nick name given to group of judges that was appointed by John Adams the night before he left office. He appointed them to go to the federal courts to have a long term federa…
The Constitution includes a procedure for charging some federal officials with crimes and removing them from office. Impeachment ONLY means CHARGING a person with a crime - it does NOT mean they have been pr…
A midnight judge, William Marbury did not get his papers making him a Supreme Court Judge
Jefferson refused to send him the official papers telling his new secretary of state, James Madison, not to send him his papers.
What did Marbury do when he could not get his papers making him a Supreme Court Judge?
Petitioned the Supreme Court to order Madison to carry out his duties and deliver the commission/papers. He was in his right due to the Judiciary Act
Judiciary Act of 1789
legislation passed by congress that created the federal court system established a supreme court and district courts
Marbury vs Madison was the first time the Supreme court declared a law unconstitutional
Supreme Court voted unanimously that Marbury had the right to his commission but that the Court would not force Madison to hand it over to him. They said the Judiciary Act of 1789 was unconstituti…
judicial review
Allows the court to determine the constitutionality of laws
(n.) an example that may serve as a basis for imitation or later action. The Supreme Court ruling of Marbury vs Madison did just that
Why was control of the New Orleans port important?
Spanish control had often caused problems for Americans who depended on the Mississippi to ship their flour, pork, apples and other products down river and through the port to export to the East and …
Spain ceded the Louisiana Territory to
France in a secret treaty in 1800
To give up or transfer, especially by treaty or formal agreement.
Napoleon Bonaparte
French emperor who first gained power after being caused to break up a royalist rebellion in Paris, protecting the Directory (which he eventually got rid of). Also, a former Jacobin.
James Monroe
Who was the president when the Monroe Doctrine was passed?
needed to fund war he was fighting in Europe. He sold the Louisiana Territory for 15 million. This purchase doubled the size of the United States.
Meriwether Lewis and William Clark
Explored the northern half of Louisiana Purchase for President Jefferson., Explorers sent by Jefferson to study the Louisiana territory's plants, animal life and geography and to discover how the region could be exploited economically
Jefferson gave Lewis and Clark specific instructions. What were they?
Follow the Missouri River and sources to try to find a usable route across the rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. Observe the customs of the Indians they met. Note the features of the l…
A Native American woman who proved an indispensable guide to Lewis and Clark during their 1804-1806 expedition. She showed the men how to forage for food and helped them maintain good relations with tribe…
How helpful was Sacajawea?
she guided the expedition to Shoshone country in Idaho where she had been born and raised. As the terrain became more rugged, the explorers lost many horses loaded with supplies. Sacajawea and her people…
How long did the expedition last?
Two years, four months and almost 8,000 miles
Burr Conspiracy
After Burr killed Hamilton in a duel he became a political outcast, he and James Wilkerson planned to take over the LA Purchase and start a new country. Wilkerson backed out and told Jefferson. …
The Federalists were unhappy about the Louisiana Purchase. Why?
They feared that this would increase the power of the South by adding more states to the Union that would support slavery and favored Southern Policies.
Barbary pirates
Plundering pirates off the Mediterranean coast of Africa; President Thomas Jefferson's refusal to pay them tribute to protect American ships sparked an undeclared naval war with North African nations
What did Napoleon set up to prevent all communication and trade with his enemy Great Britain
what did the problems with the pirates demonstrate?
the need for a navy. and also proved to other countries that the US would fight to protect its interests
forced service, especially in a navy or other armed force
people who left the military without permission, one who leaves or runs away from duty with no intention of returning.
Chesapeake-Leopard Affair
In 1807, the British warship Leopard fired on the US warship the Chesapeake a few miles off the coast. Three Americans were killed and the remaining four were impressed into the British navy. Americans were outraged.
What did Jefferson do about the Chesapeake-Leopard Affair/incident?
He knew the US was not ready for war with the greatest sea power in the world. He looked for other ways to stop the interference with America's trade and end the insults to America's pride.
A government ban on trade with other countries.
Jefferson an other Republicans were strict constructionists
a person who interprets the Constitution in a way that allows the federal government to take only those actions the Constitution specifically says it can take.
Was the economy focused enough to support Germany in the war effort?
Jefferson placed an embargo
on Great Britain and France. He hoped to hurt their war efforts enough to force them to stop seizing American ships and sailors.
Embargo Act 1807 attempted to retaliate against English impressment by prohibiting US trade with
ALL foreign nations. It devastated the New England colonies because their trade stopped and their ships rotted. This was a disaster for American trade and for Jefferson's own popularity. Great Britain was hurt on…
The Embargo Act caused the greatest hardship for
merchants and ship owners in the Northeast, mostly Federalists. Farmers and planters also suffered because they lost markets in other countries for their surplus crops.
no place to go
American harbors were crowded with ships and cargo with
Who was affected by the Embargo Act?
50,000 sailors were out of work and as many as 100,000 other workers lost their jobs. Businesses failed, and many people were imprisoned for debt.
On the one-year anniversary of the Embargo-Act
sailors and shipbuilders in port towns of the Northeast protested the act by marching to funeral music. Ships in the harbors flew their flags at half-mast to protest the act.
James Madison
father of the Constitution;4th President of the United States; member of the Continental Congress and rapporteur at the Constitutional Convention in 1776; helped frame the Bill of Rights (1751-1836)
Non-Intercourse Act
1809 - Replaced the Embargo of 1807. Unlike the Embargo, which forbade American trade with all foreign nations, this act only forbade trade with France and Britain. It did not succeed in changing Britis…
Macon's Bill No. 2
stated that if either France or Great Britain agreed to respect neutral rights, the United States would cut off trade with the other nation.
Napoleon saw a chance to hurt Britain and so
agreed that France would end its restrictions on American trade.
When France agreed to lift restrictions
President Madison gave Britain a last chance to do the same, but British ships continued to attack American merchant ships and seize American sailors.
In March 1811, President Madison
cut off trade with Great Britain. The two countries moved closer to war.
America was having more problems with the British
the Native Americans were beginning to realize they were losing their way of life. They fought back. Often the British helped.
How did the British help the Native Americans?
The British in Canada were supplying the Native Americans with guns to fight the settlers in the Ohio Valley and Northwest Territory.
Americans began to resent
the Native Americans and the British equally.
The Battle of Tippecanoe
While Tecumseh was away, and only his brother Prophet there Harrison decided to attack Prophetstown. He and about 1,000 soldiers arrived and burned Prophetstown. Many soldiers and warriors died. This war was the beginnin…
William Henry Harrison
governor and military commander in the Indian Territory. He feared the growing strength of the Indian confederation.
Indian confederation
Organization of many Native American Tribes by Tecumseh & Prophet to fight against American Settlers
What were two reasons Americans were angry with Britain?
conflicts on the sea and conflicts on the frontier with British supporting Native Americans which hurt westward expansion
War Hawks
people who urged war with Britain
Members of Congress from the West
said there could be no peace on the frontier until the British were pushed out of North America. They wanted to conquer British Canada
Members of Congress from the South
wanted to obtain Florida from Spain, Britain's ally. It was a haven for runaway slaves and Native American raiding parties.
They were paid by the United States and were "Legalized pirates," more than a thousand strong, who inflicted heavy damage on British shipping. They could not fight British warships, they captured more than 1,300 British merchant ships
conquest of Canada Britain's last hold in North America
What was a major goal in the War of 1812
attack on Canada
Americans planned to attack Canada from three directions; Detroit, Niagara Falls, and the Hudson River. All of the attacks failed. Commodore Oliver Perry was able to attack the British on Lake Erie and force …
British attack on Washington DC
On August 24, 1814, the British attacked and captured Washington DC with 6,000 British soldiers against 1,000 Americans. They burned the Capitol building and the president's mansion.
Why did the British burn DC?
To avenge the burning of the Canadian capital of York. The British thought the burning of DC was an end to the war. They moved to attack Baltimore in September.
Battle of Fort McHenry
British shelling of Baltimore harbor for 25 hours. Was unsuccessful, the British army retreats, the battle inspires the national anthem
National Anthem
Star Spangled Banner written by Francis Scott Key during the War of 1812, our country's official song of praise and patriotism adopted by Congress in 1931
Treaty of Ghent
(December 24, 1814) Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commissio…
Ghent, Belgium
where treaty was signed by US and Britain