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What year did the Year of the Four Emperors reign?
brief period of Civil War
What was going on during this time period?
the Flavian Dynasty with Vespasian
What ruling period followed this period?
65 AD - attempted to restore the Republic, but fialed
Caius Julius Vindex
governor of Gallia Lugdunensis - rebelled against Nero's tax policy
with the purpose of substituting Servius Sulpicius Galba
Why did Caius Julius Vindex rebel against Nero's tax policy
governor of Hispania Tarraconensis
Who was Servius Sulpicius Galba?
How was Vindex defeated?
The legions stationed at the border to Germania marched to meet Vindex and confront him as a traitor. Led by Lucius Verginius Rufus, the Rhine army defeated Vindex in battle and Vindex killed himself
Who was Lucius Verginius Rufus?
the leader of the legion who defeated Vindex
How was Galba first viewed as?
He was declared as a public enemy by the Senate.
He plotted to make himself emperor.
Why did Nymphidius Sabinus incite his men to transfer their loyalty from Nero to Galba?
Who was Nymphidius Sabinus?
He was the Praetorian Guard prefect during 68 AD
VII Galbiana, later known as VII Gemina
What legion was Galba in charge of after he was made emperor?
What happened to the German legions after Galba was emperor?
They were accused of obstructing Galba's path to the throne and Galba refused to pay them the rewards that they were promised. Their commander, Rufus, was replaced by Galba.
The loss of political confidence in Germania's loyalty
What caused the dismissal of the Imperial Batavian Bodyguards and rebellion?
Who was Aulus Vitellius?
governor of Germania Inferior
senators and equites
Who did Galba execute due of conspirators?
Who did the legions claim as emperor, during the reign of Galba?
Who did Galba adopt us his successor?
Lucius Calpurnius Piso Licinianus, a young senator
What offended Marcus Salvius Otho?
Galba naming Licinianus as his successor
How did Galba die?
Otho bribed the Praetorian Guards to kill Galba along with Lucius in the Forum
What prevented Otho to restore peace and stability after being named emperor?
Vitellius had declared himself Imperator in Germania and had dispatched half of his army to march on Italy
What were Vitellius' legions?
I Germanica and XXI Rapax: veterans of the Germanic Wars
offer to marry Vitellius' daughter
What did Otho do to propose peace to Vitellius?
Battle of Bedriacum
Otho was defeated by Vitellius army, after a few minor victories
How did Otho die?
He committed suicide after losing the Battle of Bedriacum
How long was Otho the emperor?
What day did Vitellius choose as assume office of Pontifex Maximus?
The anniversary of the Battle of the Allia (390 BC): a day of bad auspices according to Roman superstition
What did Vitellius do that drove the imperial treasury close to bankruptcy?
Vitellius engaged in a series of feasts, banquets (Suetonius refers to three a day: morning, afternoon and night) and triumphal parades
Which legions acclaimed Vespasian as emperor?
legions stationed in the African province of Egypt and the Middle East provinces of Iudaea (Judea/Palestine) and Syria
What did Nero order Vespasian to do?
putting down the Great Jewish Revolt in Judea (67 AD)
Gaius Licinius Mucianus
governor of Syria that supported Vespasian
Vespasian was acclaimed Emperor on July 1 in Alexandria
How did Vespasian gain control of the vital grain supplies from Egypt
Vespasian's son, that was left in Judea to deal with the Jewish rebellion
What Danubian regions acclaimed Vespasian as emperor?
legions of the provinces of Raetia and Moesia
Second Battle of Bedriacum
forces led by Primus won a crushing victory over Vitellius' army