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Ethnic Conflict in Africa

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Rwanda basic facts
-small land & population: Hutu 84%, Tutsi 15%, Twa 1%--10 million people
Rwanda timeline
1918: Rwanda-rundi passed on to Belgium from German under LoN mandates
Causes of Rwandan Genocide (3)
1. External influences: colonial & neocolonial
1926 Mortehau Law by Belgian Legislature
Mwami to appoint ONLY Tutsi chiefs
Introduction of Kipande System
arbitrary demarcation of ethnic boundaries
Hutu Social movement 1957
Democratic Number Game & Decolonization
Rwanda Politics
dominated by individuals from central Rwanda
Revolution of 1959-61
Forced over 150,000 Tutsi into exile in Uganda, Tanzania, & Zaire
Tutsi response to marginalization
Continued with Inyenzi insurgency
Tutsi Grievance
marginalization at home
Tutsi Political opportunities
NRA success in Uganda & Tutsi demobilization
What was the basic conflict that caused the Crisis in Darfur
M + POA = accommodation
G +POS + R = Mobilization
Propaganda Manipulation of Public Image
1. Role of print media in growth of propaganda
Not necessarily negative
1. Attempt to change opinions by persuasively presenting new ones
Propaganda used (7)
1. Hutu 10 commandments
Accusation in the mirror
-Attributes one's own actions and motivations to the enemy
Dehumanization of the enemy
strip victims of humanity reducing moral magnitude
Creation of siege mentality
substitute inkoyanyi (warrior) for Tutsi
Intellectual input
-"History lessons" of "treachery and exploitation"
From Kanguka (Wake up) to Kangura (Wake them up)
Newspaper that used political cartoons/caricatures t provide visual impact & reach Less Literate viewers
I Hate these Hutu
Simon Bikindi song against Hutu that supported Tutsi
Propaganda Goal
1. Populace motived by fear who could be rallied to attack
UN delayed response
Role of external actors
Role of UN
-1993: Civil war ceasefire signed, UNAMIR sent
France, etc support for Habyarimana
-1990: France provided mortars, advisors, combat troops
Why the lack of international action
1. Self-determination and principle of non-interference
Responsibility to Protect
R2P Pillars (3)
1. State has r2p civilians from mass atrocity crimes
Post-Genocide Reconstruction
1. All inclusive constitutional dispensation
All inclusive constitutional dispensation (5)
2003 const. commits Rwanda to:
Gacaca Justice system
-Paradox of punishment to end impunity & a kind of of justice to ensure healing, reconciliation, & coexistence
Communal villages
Principles of Umudugudu
Adoption of Ingando
Socializing youth into responsible citizenship
New Institutions of Higher Learning
-Pre 1994: 1 public, 4 small/private
Dismantling the relics of patriarchy
-Minimum 30% women representation-56% by 2008
Nigeria Basics
Size: 924 km2 (2x CA, 32nd world)
Hausa/Fulani political systems
-Traditional, ruled by strict Islamic hierarchy under Emir
Yoruba political system
Monarchs that were Less autocratic than h/F
Igbo political system
-Autonomous, democratically organized communities
Colonial impact
indirect rule through established political systems--Monarchs in north
First Republic
-1960 Independence
Causes of Biafra War
1. Rigged national elections of 1964/5
International Forces and OAU Intervention
1. The SU, US, & UK supported FMG
USSR, US, & UK support FGM
USSR: Major source of military equipment
France supported Biafrans
-Motivated by desire to break up "Anglophone" Nigeria and strengthen "Francophone" West Africa
OAU Interventiond
hands tied by principle of non-interference
-Meet at Kinshasa, Condgo-Leopoldville
1967 Assembly of Heads of State/Government
-May 23-31, 1968
OAU Kampala Peace Talks
OAU Consultative meeting
convinced warring groups to agree on DeMil corridor
OAU Summit meeting
Deadlock btw Biafra supporters & FGM supporters
-Sep 1969
Addis Ababa Peace Conference