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Imperialism in Asia & Africa

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The take over of a country or territory by a stronger nation with the intent of dominating the political, economic, and social life of the people
rich men in the upper class;, Base of power, strongmen military dictators
the theory or practice of regional rather than central systems of administration or economic, cultural, or political affiliation.
Berlin Conference
A meeting of European leaders held in 1884-1885 to lay down basic rules for imperialist competition in sub-Saharan Africa. (No single European power would be able to claim continent of Africa. Participants promised to bring Christianity.)
fukuzawa yakichi
mid 1870s- Japan is backwards and needs to learn from West
Matthew Perry
the United States sent him to Japan and he convinced Japan to come out of its isolation in 1863
sphere of influence
area in which a foreign nation had special trading privileges and made laws for its own citizens
Indirect rule
when an imperial power co-opts the local officials into ruling a colony on its behalf, cheaper and more convenient than direct rule, but not always possible when locals resist
Direct rule
when an imperial power sends its own officials to rule a colony for itself, more expensive and difficult than indirect rule, but more practical when locals revolt
Meiji Restoration
The 1867 ousting of the Tokugawa Shogunate that "restored" the power of Japanese emperors. The starting point of modern Japanese gov.
What type of government did Japan institute?
gave absolute power to Japanese emperor, but created legislature- diet
made all people equal before the law
What changes did the Meiji Constitution create?
modernization was successful
Was Japan successful?
Did Japan Westernize, was this forced upon them or did they do it willingly?
they sent diplomats to western Europe and US to study fashion, etiquette, culture, lit, government, and politics- Japan willingly westernized
What is the importance of the Platt Amendment?
gained control of the philippines and puerto rico, forced Cuba to put PA in their constitution
Yellow Journalism
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers.
The Maine
fought in Cuba and the Philippines
On what fronts was the Spanish-American War fought?
platt amendment
U.S. can have naval bases in Cuba and intervene whenever U.S. wants
What was the outcome of the Spanish-American War?
USS Maine docked on Cuba and explodes. US journalists say Spain blew it up- causes US to go to war with Spain
spain lost, Cuba got independence
What was the outcome of the Spanish-American War? Who lost and received independence?
Why was the Panama Canal built?
US wanted a canal through central America to reduce travel time by ships
1904- 1914
When was the Panama canal built?
How did the U.S. gain access to the Panama canal?
The US back panama in their revolt, panama won and gave land to US
taiping uprising
civil war in China - wanted revolutionary change within society
What did the Taping Uprising want to end?
footbinding, prostitution, opium, end of private property. Which led to equality of men and women
Why is the Taping Uprising important to China?
weakened the Qing dynasty, replacement of confucianism and buddhism with a version of Christianity
What caused the Opium wars?
Britain grew and processed the opium in India
What was the outcome of the Opium Wars?
Chinas importation of opium skyrocketed, smuggled into China, many addicts in China
Boxer Rebellion
Chinese revolutionaries revolt to overthrow and remove western influence from China; which took place the end of the Qing dynasty between 1899 and 1901
a government ruled by elected representatives instead of a monarch
muslim world losing territory to christians
ottoman empire (the sick man of Europe)
Tanzimat reforms
reforms that re-centralized and modernized the state including factories, mining, industries, reclaim agriculture land, telegraphs, railroads and schools.
young turks
wanted to secularize the country, wanted modernization/ westernization
What were the young turks goal for the ottoman empire?
to modernize the ottoman empire and make it more secular to some western practices
it was a dictatorship that ruled Japan- tried to centralize power
What was the Tokugawa Shogun government like and what country did they rule?
poor economy and allowed US to invade
What caused the Tokugawa Shogun to decline?
strong military leaders - most powerful family was Tokugawa
local region
The Tokugawa Shogun made the samurai loyal instead of _______
How did Japan industrialize?
Japan built factories and sold them to wealthy families
firms created by powerful banking and industrial families Ex: Kawasaki family
How did Japan become the first non-Western modern world power?
won the Russo-Japanese War, Set up groups to seek independence from Russia
Social Darwinism
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
Monroe Doctrine
1823 - Written by President Monroe's Secretary of State John Adams. Declared that Europe should not interfere in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere and that any attempt at interference by a European power w…
Why is the monroe doctrine important?
kept Europeans from imperializing Latin America so the US could have it all to themselves
Santa Anna
caudillo, leader of Mexico
1833- 1855
When did Mexico and the U.S. go to war with each other
wanted to make Texas own country
Why did U.S citizens move to Texas?
US adds _______ and makes it part of them- Mexico thought this was act of war - US wins war and gets half of Mexico territory - including Texas, New Mexico, Utah, Arizona, parts of California and Nevada
Economic Imperialism- US
What type of imperialism was practiced toward Latin America, who was the imperial power in Latin America?
Asian and African economies were brought into world economy centered in West
How did globalization occur during the Imperial era?
Nations became dependent on one crop, which makes them vulnerable
east india company
What company controlled India in the early 1800s?
Sepoy Rebellion
1854, resulted in centralization of colonial control
british government takes over India
What was the outcome of the Sepoy Rebellion?
required unpaid labor on public projects
What were the economies of forced labor like in Africa?
cash crops- rubber, cocoa
What were the Africans forced to produce
What were the Africans punishments?
If they fail to collect their quota their hands were cut off
What happened to family life in Africa during Imperialism? (men)
men became absent because they were forced to migrate to grow cash crops for export
What happened to family life in Africa during Imperialism? (women)
women have to grow agricultural, care for children, run the home, and work more than 70 hours a week without husband
Scramble for Africa
Between 1880 and 1914 Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, Spain, and Italy wanted African possessions.
Liberia and Ethiopia
only territories free from European control in 1914
When was the Scramble for Africa?
wanted new markets to sell their products, steam powered ships needed bases and ports
Why did the European countries need to get colonies again during the 19th century?
During the 19th century, european states were a _______?