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Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832)
British theorist and philosopher who proposed utilitarianism, the principle that governments should operate on the basis of utility, or the greatest good for the greatest number.
Edmund Burke (1729-1797)
Member of British Parliament and author of Reflections on
Politically active students around 1815 in the German states proposing unification and democratic principles.
Italian secret societies calling for a unified Italy and republicanism after 1815.
Carlsbad Decrees (1819)
Repressive laws in the German states limiting freedom of speech and dissemination of liberal ideas in the universities.
Russian revolutionaries calling for constitutional reform in the early nineteenth century.
Frederick William IV (1840-1861)
King of Prussia who promised and later reneged on his promises for constitutional reforms in 1848.
Francois Guizot (1787-1874)
Chief minister under Louis Philippe. Guizot's repression led to the revolution of 1848.
based on Christian principles, against revolution
Louie Napoleon Bonaparte (1808-1873)
Nephew of Napoleon I; he came to power as president of the Second French Republic in 1848.
Prince Clemens von Metternich (1773-1859)
Austrian member of the nobility and chief architect of conservative policy at the Congress of Vienna.
John Stuart Mill (1806-1873)
British philosopher who published On Liberty (1859), advocating individual rights against government intrusion, and The Subjection of Women (1869), on the cause of women's rights.
Poor Law of 1834
Legislation that restricted the number of poverty-stricken eligible for aid.
Concert of Europe
Depopulated areas of England that nevertheless sent representatives to Parliament.
Economic customs union of German states established in 1818 by Prussia and including almost all German-speaking states except Austria by 1844.
Repeal of Test Act (1828)
Allowed Protestants who were not members of the Church of England to hold public office.
Catholic Emancipation Bill (1829)
Enabled Catholics to hold public office for the first time.
Reform Bill of 1832
Gave vote to all men who paid ten pounds in rent a year; eliminated the rotten boroughs.
the system in which Africans were to be treated as lifelong laborers, never to be set free like white indentured servants
Limited children's and adolescents workweek in textile factories
Repealed in 1846. They had imposed a tariff on imported grain and were a symbolic protection of aristocratic landholdings.
Michael Bakunin (1814-1876)
Radical Russian, advocated revolutionary violence. He believed that revolutionary movements should be lead by secret societies who would seize power, destroy the state and create a new social order.
Henry Bessemer (1813-1898)
Englishman who developed the Bessemer converter, the
Louis Blanc (1811-1882)
Wrote the Organization of Work (1840) which proposed the use of competition to eliminate competition. It was the first step toward a future socialist society. Advocated the principle of "from each according to his abilit…
Middle class (bourgeois) doctrine indebted to the writings of the philosophers, the French Revolution, and the popularization of the Scientific Revolution. Its political goals were self government (concept of the general will); a written constitut…
The idea, according to Karl Marx, that change and development in history results from the conflict between social classes. Economic forces impel human beings to behave in socially determined ways.
The manufacture of goods in the household setting, a production system that gave way to the factory system.
Friedrich Engels (1820-1895)
Collaborator with Karl Marx. Engels was a textile factory owner and supplied Marx with the hard data for his economic writings, most notably Das Kapttal (l867).
Battlefield photographer of the Crimean War
J. G. Fichte (1762-1814)
German writer who believed that the German spirit was nobler and purer than that of other peoples.
Charles Fourier (1772-1837)
A leading Utopian socialist who envisaged small communal societies in which men and women cooperated in agriculture and industry, abolishing private property and monogamous marriage as well.
The idea, according to G. W. F. Hegel (1770-1831), a German philosopher, that social change results from the conflict of opposite ideas. The thesis is confronted by the antithesis, resulting in a synthesis, which …
J. G. Herder (1774-1803)
Forerunner of the German Romantic movement who believed that each people shared a national character, or Volksgeist.
Thomas Malthus (1776-1834)
English parson whose Essay on Population (1798) argued
Karl Marx (1818-1883)
German philosopher and founder of Marxism, the theory that class conflict is the motor force driving historical change and development.
Robert Owen (1771-1858)
Utopian socialists who improved health and safety conditions in mills, increased workers wages and reduced hours. Dreamed of establishing socialist communities the most notable was New Harmony (1826) which failed.
David Ricardo (1772-1823)
English economist who formulated the "iron law of wages," according to which wages would always remain at the subsistence level for the workers because of population growth.
British journalist who reported the events of the Crimean War first hand for the people at home.
Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
English philosopher who argued that in the difficult economic struggle for existence, only the "fittest" would survive.
Flora Tristan (1803-1844)
Socialist and feminist who called for working women's social and political rights.