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Ferdinand and Isabella's Rule
Ruled from 1470 to 1535. She was the princess of Castille, he was the prince of Aragon. The marriage combined their kingdoms. They later conquered Navarre.
Christian leaders' effort to retake the Iberian peninsula from the Moors
What explorer did Ferdinand and Isabella sponser?
Christopher Columbus. They had him claim land in the New World. Spain then entered a period of prosperity.
What caused Spain's economy to crumble in the 1600s?
Spain had not invested the wealth it obtained from the New World gold mines wiesly. The mines ran out.
Joanna the Mad
Ferdinand and Isabella's daughter. They had no son, so they married her off to Philip the Handsome, who was the son of Maximillian Hapsburg I. He had lots of land, and was a Holy Roman Emperor.
Holy Roman emperor and king of Spain as Charles I . He summoned the Diet of Worms (and the Council of Trent, He was a supporter of Catholicism and tried to crush the Reformation by use of the Counter-Reformation.
Diet of Worms
Assembly of the estates of the empire, called by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V in 1521. Luther was ordered to recant but he refused. Charles V declared Luther an outlaw.
Sucession of Charles V
He retired to a monastary, so he gave the Holy Roman Empire territory to his brother Ferdinand, and the New World colonies, the Netherlands, Belgium, and Spain to his son Philip II.
Philip II's religious conflicts
He tried to force Catholosism on the Calvinist Netherlands using the Spanish Inquisition, which would track down and kill heretics.
Philip II's marriage
He married Bloody Mary, an English Catholic monarch. They wanted to unite England and Spain, but she died, and had no children, so her Protestant sister Elizabeth took over, and Spain and England became enemies.
The Defeat of the Spanish Armada (1588)
Philip sent his Navy to take over England, but England won. They had smaller, faster ships (good for fighting in the tight English Channel), and they would send exploding ships into the Spanish horseshoe formati…
He and his descendents ruled the Holy Roman Empire unchallenged until the Hohenzollern family of Prussia rose up.
Fredrick William, Fredrick William I, Fredrick I, and Fredrick II
They were militeristic rulers of Prussia in the 1700s. They built up the army and trained it to take on the Hapsburgs.
A group of large men recruited by Fredrick to be an elite fighting force in his army. He grew attached to them, so they didn't see much action. Fredrick I continued this tradition.
Fredrick II and Fredrick I
Fredrick II was taught by his best friend to love poetry and the arts, but Fredrick I wanted him to be militeristic, so he killed his son's best friend right in front of him.
Charles Hapsburg VI
He took over the Holy Roman Empire, but had no sons. He created the Pragmatic Saction to allow his daughter, Maria Tereasa, to rule.
War of Austrian Succession
The Hohenzollens thought that a female ruler would weaken the Hapsburg empire, so they attacked, defeated the Hapsburgs, and took over their land.