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Introduction to Law & Ethics


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Court
A judicial office that hears cases and controversies
Trial Court
the court that initially hears a case.
Appeal (appellate) court
A court that reviews the decisions of lower court to determine there is an error
Federal Trial Courts
United Stated District court
Federal Appellate Courts
United States Court of Appeals
Justice Court
Texas Trial Courts
Texas Appellate Courts
Court of Appeals
affirm
Appellate court's agreement with the lower court, upholding the lower courts verdict.
Case
refers to some form of legal dispute
Docket
the collection of cases pending before a court
Judge
one appointed or elected to judicial office
Judgment
a legal decision by a judge on the merits of a case
Jurisdiction
An area of authority or control; the right to administer justice.
Personal (in personam) jurisdiction
refers to the authority of a court over the parties to a case
reverse
Appellate court changing the verdict of the lower court.
Reverse and Remand
where an appeal court overturns the decision of a lower court and sends the case back to the lower court for further action
Reverse and Render
where an appeal court overturns the decision of a lower court but does not send the case back to the lower court because no further action is necessary
Stare Decisis
a rule that a lower court must follow rules of law stated by higher appeal (appellate) court in written decisions
Subject Matter Jurisdiction
refers to the authority of a court to hear a particular case
Verdict
Jury's decision in a case
Breach of the Peace
conduct likely to cause injury to person or property
Codified Law
written law enacted by some duly constituted authority
Common Law
traditional unwritten law from England
Democracy
A government controlled by its citizens.
Equity Jurisprudence ("equity")
a body of law influenced by the Christian church
Estoppel
a rule of equity that prevents someone from denying something that was previously represented to others
Formal Legal Process
official court documents under seal
Injunction
a court order, the violation of which can result in a fine or imprisonment
Law
A rule of civil conduct prescribed by the supreme power in a state, commanding what is right and prohibiting what is wrong.
Liable
legally responsible
Probate law
substantive law pertaining to the estates of deceased (can include guardianship, estates of incompetent persons)
Remedies
refers to types of relief that can be granted by a court
Republic
A form of government in which the people select representatives to govern them and make laws.
Respondeat Superior
a rule that an employer is liable for the negligence of an employee
Statute
written law enacted by a legislature
Substantive Law
Law creating rights & duties
Writ of Habeas Corpus
a court order compelling the government to produce someone held in custody and show cause why the person is being held