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Asset Pricing Models


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The Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)
This model gives us a precise prediction of the relationship that we should observe between the risk of an asset and its expected return
Market Portfolio
All traded assets
Capital Market Line
The line from the risk-free rate through the market portfolio, M. Graphs the risk premiums of efficient portfolios (i.e. portfolios composed of the market and the risk-free asset) as a function of portfolio standard eviation
efficient frontier
developed by Prof Harry Markowitz 1952
Mutual Fund Theorem
The passive strategy of investing in a market index portfolio is efficient. A passive investor may view the market index as a reasonable first approximation of an efficient risky portfolio
Market Price of Risk
Quantifes the extra return that investors demand to bear portfolio risk
beta
responsiveness of a stocks expected return to changes in teh value of the complete marekt portfolio of that stock
Security market line (SML)
a graphical representation of the CAPM with beta on the x-axis and expected return on the y-axis; slope of the line is the market risk premium (Rm - Rf)
Underpriced Stocks
Provide an expected return in excess of the fair return stipulated by the SML, therefore they plot above the SML
Alpha
The difference between the fair and actually expected rates of return on a stock
Market model
a regression equation that specifies a linear relationship between the return on a security (or portfolio) and the return on a broad market index
Frontier of Risky Portfolios
portfolios of risky assets offering the highest return for a given level of risk, or the lowest risk for a given level of return.
Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)
a model that specifies the relationship between risk and expected return. In the CAPM model, the only risk that matters is nondiversifiable risk, also known as systematic risk or market risk, which is the varia…
Asset Allocation Decision
the decision as to how much money to put in risky assets and how much to put in risk-free assets. According to the CAPM model, the asset allocation decision is the most important decision inves…
Arbitrage Pricing Theory
a model of risk and expected return that includes multiple measures of systematic risk.
Separation
the notion that corporate decisions can be separated from the preferences of the individual stockholder.
The Capital Asset Pricing Model
CAPM can "price" (estimate RoR for individual securities using CAPM and then obtaining a price estimate
Pricing
Unlike the Capital Market Line the CAPM can price both
The CAPM's Main Assumptions
Investors are risk averse individuals who maximize the
The CAPM's Intuition
All investors hold efficient portfolios comprising the market portfolio, M and the riskfree security
The CAPM's Intuition continued
Expected return on A = Riskfree return + Risk premium
CAPM and Beta
βj = 1: Security (portfolio) has the same risk as the market portfolio
The Security Market Line
In equilibrium, all risky securities are priced so that their expected returns plot on the SML
The CML Versus the SML
SML can also be written as
Rjt = αj + βj
Estimating Betas Using the Market Model
Estimating the Other CAPM Parameters
Rf rate generally estimated as the yield to maturity on long term government bonds