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What's a solvent?
The compound that dissolves the solute, typically water is a solvent.
What's a solute?
The compound being dissolved in the solvent.
what's a saturation mean?
The maximum amount of solute dissolved in solution.
What is unsaturated mean?
Less than the amount of dissolved solutes.
What's super-saturated mean?
the concentration of solute is higher then it would be at equilibrium.This is very unstable and a rate of crystallization is slow.
Define Molarity?
Moles of solute per liter of solution
Molarity Example: 500mL of 2M of NaOH
Mol=(M)(V) where Volume is in liters. so Moles = (2M)(0.5L) = 1mole of NaOH
Molality question: 4g of NaOH & 1L water and mixed them together.
We can intuit that 1L of water is 1kg so 4g of NaOH is 1/10 of a mole so we have 0.04moles of NaOH. so we have 0.04mol/1kg = 0.04molality
what are Aqueous salts?
Salts are typically ionic compounds that have varying degrees of dissociation.
Define colligative properties?
Properties a property of solution that changes as you add SOLUTE. Ex. Electrical conductivity of water via dissolved ions.
Van't off factor.
NaCl, i=2
0
0
Freezing Point Depression
The (-) means the temp is going down. We add solutes that will lower the freezing point. Kf=1.86
Boiling Point elevation
the temp goes up. Kb=0.51
Colligative Question; we have 80g of NaOH in 500mL of water what's the new freezing and boiling point?
so we know the weight of NaoH = 40g so we if we are given 80g, we have exactly 2moles of NaOH. We also know that 1L=1Kg of water, given 500mL or 0.5L of w…
Ranking Highest Freezing pt. or Highest boiling pt. Example.
where (i)(m) gives total ion concentration in a solution
Defining Raout's Law (Vapor pressure)
The measure of vapor above a given solution in equilibrium. For instance, in diagram (a), the solvent is pure water and let's say that the partial pressure for pure water is 20torr. Now let's…
Applying Raoult's Equation of partial pressure
Container 1 = Pure water has a vapor pressure 20torr
osmotic pressure
Drawing power for water, which depends on the number of molecules in the solution.
Osmotic Pressure example
If a cell is hypertonic to a water, then water will rush in.
Rate Expressions tells us a way how to measure a reaction.
In this rxn, there are three ways to measure the rate. Since there are three species this indicates three ways to measure the rate. Either watch how fast the reactant is disappearing or how …
Measuring the concentration over time
Measuring the rate of a rxn is equal to the change in concentration over time of a chemical specie with a coefficient of 1. The (-) indicates that the reactant is being consumed ovr time.
Rate laws
helps us to predict the rate of a reaction before experimentation. The exponents "x" and "y" represent the order of the reaction, typically no overall order more then 3. A order of "0" equal…
Determining rate order through experimentation
The table shows some experimental concentration values for the reactants,if we wish to find the order of [NO2], we first identify a concentration change in [NO2] compared [Cl2] where theres no change. We see …
Determining rate order through experimentation (continued)
Determining the rate order for [Cl2], we again look were on the table where [Cl2] changes and where [NO2] doesn't. And from the table [CL2] changes from 0.1 to 0.2 with an initial rate ch…
K= rate/[NO]^2[Cl]
Calculating the "K" constant in the rate equation
Elementary reactions requires mechanisms
A mechanism involves steps that can't be broken down into simpler steps. Additionally, the coefficients on the rxn's are the rate orders. *Also the slowest rate contains the overall rate law or rate determining step*
single step rxn diagram
Here this diagram shows a single step rxn, as we can see the reactants are lower in energy then the products so by definition its *endothermic* meaning it absorbs energy to start the reaction…
Two step reaction diagram
This is a multi-step diagram, where we have two transitions steps and two activation energies. We aslo have an intermediate step. Ea1 is greater than Ea2 (Ea1>Ea2) and K2 is greater then K1 (K2>K1) w…
Catalyst effects on Reaction Diagrams
Catalyst lowers the activation energy by taking a more efficient path. * Catalyst don't change delta H, or equilibrium and its also doesn't get consumed by the rxn.*
heterogeneous catalyst
a catalyst that is in a different phase
Homogenous Catalyst
A catalyst that is in phase with the reactants, such as using a gaseous catalyst and reacting it with gaseous reactants.
Intermediates & Catalyst in Rate Law Elementary Reactions
Intermediates are produced in the first step and used in the second step.In the reaction above the fluorine molecule is a intermediate. And Catalyst are usually a reactant first and a product second.
Unimolecular & Bimolecular specie
The the first reaction has a rate law of Rate=K[O3]=1and is unimolecular. And the second rxn has a rate law of Rate=K[O][O3] =2 and is bimolecular
aqueous solution
a solution in which water is the solvent
concentration
a mixture that has a large amount of solute in the solvent; a strong solution
dilute
a mixture that has a small amount of solute in the solvent; a weak solution
Molar solubility
is when the maximum dissolved solute concentration is reached for that particular solvent.
Precipitation
Is when the solution super -saturated and dissolution begins to form solid.
electrolytes
all aqueous acids are
acidic anhydride
product of nonmetallic oxide with water (e.g. sulfuric acid, carbonic acid, phosphoric acid)
aeration
process by which air is circulated through, mixed with or dissolved in a liquid or substance
alloy
a material made of elements that has metallic properties. Usually to make a substance superior than its elemental components
Boiling Point
??T bp = Kbp • m • i
Brownian movement
zig-zag path of colloidal particles when suspended in a liquid
capillary action
attraction of the surface of a liquid to the surface of a solid
colligative property
property which depends primarily on concentration of particles instead of type
concentrated
(of a substance or solution) present in a high proportion relative to other substances; having had water or other diluting agent removed or reduced
critical pressure
lowest pressure where it can stay a liquid state at critical temperature
critical temperature
temperature above which liquid phase of substance cannot exist (i.e. above this point, no gas can be liquified regardless of pressure)
Crystal
A substance with repeating patterns or atoms
Deliquescent
Compounds that remove sufficient water from the air to completely dissolve and form solutions
endothermic
A chemical reaction that absorbs heat
efflorescent
hydrates which lose hydration in course of entire day
exothermic
A chemical reaction that releases energy
heat of fusion
amount of energy required at melting point temperature to cause change of phase to occur
heat of vaporization
amount of energy required at boiling point temperature to cause change of phase to occur
heavy water
Contains hydrogen-2 atoms instead of hydrogen-1 atoms in compound with oxygen.
Hydrate
A salt associated with a definite number of molecules of water.
hydrogen bonds
attraction between molecules that have hydrogen bonded to a small, high en atom
Le Chatelier's Principle
application of stress (change in temp, pressure, or concentration) on a system at equilibrium causes it to minimize the stress and attain new equilibrium position
melting point
temperature at which a compound turns from a solid to a liquid or a liquid to a solid
meniscus
concave liquid surface that forms in a test tube/graduated cylinder
miscible/immiscible
miscible - two liquids mix and dissolve in each other
molarity
# moles in solute / 1L of solution
molality
# of moles of solute / 1000 g of solvent
mole fraction
fraction of moles of a component gas in the total moles of a gas mixture (na/nt)=Xa
phase equilibrium
the point at which the rates of evaporation and condensation equalize
polarity
_______ of the bonds determines the polarity of the molecule
saturated
a solution that is in equilibrium with respect to a given dissolved substance. (maximum amount of solute under normal conditions)
Specific Gravity
Has no units - same deal as density
sublimation
a change directly from the solid to the gaseous state without becoming liquid
surface tension
a measure of how difficult it is to break the surface of a liquid
synthesis
A+B?AB
viscosity
friction or resistance to motion when molecules move past each other in a liquid