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Level 98

Liquids, Solids & Properties of Solutions


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liquids and solids
_ and _ share many similar characteristics
Intermolecular force
attractive forces between molecules holding them in a form to create liquids and solids
lack of intermolecular forces
gases are characterized by a _ of _ _
weaker
intermolecular forces are _ than bonds
intact
molecules remain _
h-bond, dipole-dipole, london dispersion
intemolecular forces list strongest to weakest
dipole-dipole and london dispersion
two primary types of intermolecular forces
dipole-dipole
forces that exist between polar molecules where the positive end of one molecule attracts the negative end of the other;
h-bond is between
H and F, O, N
london dispersion
forces that exist between molecules as a result of positive nuclei of one molecule attracting the electrons of another molecule;
higher boiling points and higher freezing temperatures
strong intermolecular forces relate to _ and _
characteristics of the liquid state
low compressibility, lack of rigidity, and high density compared to gases
attraction from below and toward the sides
surface molecules in a liquid are subject to
if intermolecular forces are stronger than exterior forces...
the solution tries to minimize the surface area. droplets
the solution tries to maximize surface area
if intermolecular forces are weaker than exterior forces
surface tension
a measure of how difficult it is to break the surface of a liquid
capillary action
attraction of the surface of a liquid to the surface of a solid
cohesive and adhesive
two types of forces in capillary action
cohesive forces
inside the liquid
adhesive forces
forces between the liquid and the sides of the container
oxygen molecules with attractions for water's H atoms
glass has a lot of _ _ with _ for _ _ _
viscosity
friction or resistance to motion when molecules move past each other in a liquid
increases viscosity
high capacity to form H bonds
more because they become entangled
large molecules are _ viscous because...
solids can be classified by
crystalline solids and amorphous solids
crystalline solids
highly regular pattern. composed of repeating unit cells that make up a lattice
irregular
amorphous solids
types of solids
ionic, molecular, atomic
ionic solids
dissolve in water and conduct electricity
molecular solids
may dissolve in water but do NOT conduct electricity
atomic solids
graphite, diamond, silicon, metals, etc. conduction of electricity depends on whether metal or non-metal
crystalline or amorphous
ionic and molecular solids are either _ or _
unit cell
smallest repeating pattern of a lattice
metals are characterized by
high thermal and electrical conductivity
metal structure
hard spheres that efficiently utilize all of the space. second layer moves into indentations of the layer below
metal structure patterns
a-b-a and a-b-c
bonding
accounts for the properties of solids
ionic bonds are
strong but brittle
brittle
covalent compounds are _______ when solid
metallic bonding accounts for
the malleability and ductility
strong and non-directional
metallic bonding must be
electron sea
simplest explanation of metallic bonding
in metallic bonds, electrons
move easily around all of the atoms
alloys
(solid solutions)formed when two or more metals or non-metals are combined together
network atomic solids
nonmetals with directional covalent bonds
carbon occurs in
allotropes of diamond, graphite, and fullerenes
Allotropes
Compounds of the same element that have different physical properities.
silica, sand
silicon-oxygen compound aka
silica forms
a network of SiO4 tetrahedra
amorphous solid, glass
when heated, silica becomes
makes silica a semiconductive element
a few electrons can cross the gap at 25°C
molarity def
describes how dilute or concentrate
molarity
# moles in solute / 1L of solution
mass percent
(mass of solute/mass of solution) X 100%
mole fraction
fraction of moles of a component gas in the total moles of a gas mixture (na/nt)=Xa
molality
# of moles of solute / 1000 g of solvent
factors affecting solubility
must overcome intermolecular forces. like dissolves like polarity, energy, and pressure
pressure affects the solubility of
gas only. NOT l or s
Enthalpy
Amount of energy within a system
enthalpy of solution
energy change associated with the formation of a solution
three steps of formation of a solution
1 breaking of solute in individual steps (endothermic)
enthalpy of hydration
the solute/solvent interaction
Colligative Properties
A property that depends on the total number of particles dissolved
?T=Kb*Msolute
boiling point elevation
?T=Kf*Msolute
freezing point depression
phase diagrams are
based on a closed system
critical temperature
temperature above which liquid phase of substance cannot exist (i.e. above this point, no gas can be liquified regardless of pressure)
critical pressure
lowest pressure where it can stay a liquid state at critical temperature
critical point
critical temperature+critical pressure
fluid region
neither liquid nor vapor
compressibility
a measure of how much the volume of matter decreases under pressure