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What Are Properties of Solutions?


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saturated solution
A mixture that contains as much dissolved solute as is possible at a given temperature.
unsaturated solution
A mixture that contains less dissolved solute than is possible at a given temperature.
dilute solution
A mixture that has only a little solute dissolved in it.
concentrated solution
A mixture that has a lot of solute dissolved in it.
The faster the solute will dissolve
The higher the temperature of the solvent
If you stir a solution
It will dissolve the solute faster
Solutes dissolve faster
If you increase the surface area
crushing, making into a power,
Give an example of increasing the surface area
YES,
if you break a sugar cube in 1/2, have you increased the surface area
crushing
Between breaking in 1/2 or girinding into a powder -- which increases the surface area more
mortar and pestal
What apparatus is used to crush a small sample of a solid
no change
If you crush an item, what is the change to its mass?
HEAT the solution
How can you make a solution of water and salt dissolve more solute
Increases the boiling point
How does a solute effect the boiling point of a water
Lower the freezing point
How does a solute effect the freezing point of water
Solutions
A homogenous mixture is a physical combination of two or more substances with a uniform and definite composition
solute
A _______ is a substance that dissolves in a solvent to make a solution.
solvent
A _______ is a substance that can dissolve other substances.
Solvation Process
Process of solute dissolving in a solvent
Enthalpy
Amount of energy within a system
Tyndall Effect
A beam of light is visible as it passes through a mixture
air
Examples of Solutions
Suspension
A heterogeneous mixture that contains particles much larger that a colloidal suspension
colloid
A mixture containing small, undissolved particles that do not settle out.
Dissociation
Condition where a solute, when dissolved, breaks up into its component ions
Electrolyte
A substance which when molten or in an aqueous solution can conduct electricity (and is broken down by it)
Electrolyte Solution
A solution that conducts electricity
nonelectrolyte
are substances that form no ions in water and cant conduct electricity ex;alcohol and sucrose
Weak Electrolyte
A substance that can partially ionize
Strong Electrolyte
A substance which dissociates completely into ions in dilute aqueous solutions.
Hygroscopic substamce
A substance that can remove water vapor from the air
Deliquescent
Compounds that remove sufficient water from the air to completely dissolve and form solutions
solubility
A measure of how much solute can dissolve in a given solvent at a given temperature.
miscible
2 liquids that dissolve into one another
Immiscible
Conditions where two liquids will not dissolve in one another
Agitation (stirring)
Factors Affecting the rate of solution formation
supersaturated solution
A mixture that has more dissolved solute than is predicted by its solubility at a given temperature.
Factors affecting solubility of a solid
Temperature: almost always increases the solubility of the solid in a liquid
Factors affecting the solubility of a gas
Temperature: decreases the solubility of a gas in a liquid as the temperature increases
concentration
a mixture that has a large amount of solute in the solvent; a strong solution
Diluted Solution
A solution which contains a smaller amount of solute.
molarity
# moles in solute / 1L of solution
Diluting a solution
M1V1 = M2V2
Percent Solution
Solution concentrations can be expressed as a %
Liquid-liquid solution (v/v)
% of solution = vol solute / vol solution • 100%
Solid-liquid (g/mL or m/v)
% Sol = grams solute / mL of solution • 100%
Mass %
% = mass solute / mass solution • 100%
Henry's law
Henry's law states that the number of moles (mol) of a gas dissolved in a liquid at a given temperature is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas.
(Molal)
Expresses the number of moles of solute per kg of solvent
Colligative Properties
A property that depends on the total number of particles dissolved
4 Colligative Properties
Vapor pressure Lowering
Boiling Point
??T bp = Kbp • m • i
Freezing Point
??T fp = Kfp • m • i
mole fraction
fraction of moles of a component gas in the total moles of a gas mixture (na/nt)=Xa