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Level 94

Chemical Composition of Cells


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actin
A globular protein, joined together in long filaments and making up a cell's cytoskeleton.
Active Site
-small part of enzyme's surface (like a hollow carved into a mountainside)
ATP
The main energy-carrier molecule in cells, produce during cellular respiration.
Amino acid
20 most common have a central carbon (alpha carbon) bonded to an NH2 group and COOH group; In 19 of 20 C is chiral center. R is a functional group that determines the amino acid.
biochromes
Microscopic pigments found in animal cells.
carbohydrates
a sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharide) or polymers (polysaccharide)
cholesterol
A type of lipid found in cell membranes.
cohesive
attraction between individual water molecules.
Collagen
dead protein fibers
denatured
Describes a protein, the structure of which has been altered so that it no longer functions in the way it was meant to
Disaccharide
2 bonded sugars
electromagnetic spectrum
the _______ consists of waves at all possible energies, frequencies, and wavelengths.
enzymes
biological catalyst
enzyme-substrate complex
A temporary complex formed when an enzyme binds to its substrate molecule(s).
extracellular fluid
Fluid surrounding and bathing a cell.
fatty acids
A type of organic acid that combines with glycerol to form lipids. Building blocks of lipids.
glycerol
A molecule that combines with three fatty acids to form a lipid.
Glycogen
An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.
hydrophillic
'water-loving'; substances that easily dissolve in water (e.g. salts).
Hydrophobic
hates water
inorganic
All other compounds that are not organic.
intracellular enzymes
Enzymes that function within cells.
Keratin
hair and nails protein fibers
lipid
a class of biomolecules whose structures are mainly nonpolar
lock and key mechanism
Implies there is one substrate for each enzyme, the enzyme active site in an exact fit for the substrate.
minerals
Inorganic compounds present in food and required for normal functioning.
Monosaccharide
A simple carbohydrate, consisting of a carbon chain or ring with several alcohol groups and either an aldehyde or ketone group
Nucleotides
Monomers that makeup nucleic acids
organic
Complex compounds containing carbon.
Enzymes.
organic catalysts
pH
= -log10 [H?(aq)]
phagocytosis
A process when larger particles, mainly solids, enter a cell by being engulfed
phospholipid bilayer
A double layer of phospholipids that forms the basis of all cellular membranes. The phospholipids heads, which are hydrophillic, face the water of extra-cellular fluid or the cytoplasm; the tails, which are hydrophobic, are bu…
plasmids
The small, circular segments of DNA that are found in bacteria and that stay separate from the bacterial chromosomes.
polysaccharide
A chain of monosaccharide sugar molecules.
polyunsaturated
a term used to describe organic compounds that have more than one double or triple bond
products
A substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction.
Protein
50 or more bonded amino acids
RNA
(biochemistry) a long linear polymer of nucleotides found in the nucleus but mainly in the cytoplasm of a cell where it is associated with microsomes
saturated
a solution that is in equilibrium with respect to a given dissolved substance. (maximum amount of solute under normal conditions)
solvent
A _______ is a substance that can dissolve other substances.
Starch
A storage polysaccharide in plants consisting entirely of glucose.
steroids
A group of lipids having a wide range of functions.
Substrates
reactant molecules
surface tension
a measure of how difficult it is to break the surface of a liquid
triglyceride
A type of lipid composed of three fatty acid tails attached to a glycerol unit.
unsaturated
a solution that is not in equilibrium with respect to a given dissolved substance and in which more of the substance can dissolve. (less than maximum amount of solute under normal conditions)
vitamins
Organic compounds needed by living things in small amounts for normal functioning.