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A globular protein, joined together in long filaments and making up a cell's cytoskeleton.
-small part of enzyme's surface (like a hollow carved into a mountainside)
The main energy-carrier molecule in cells, produce during cellular respiration.
20 most common have a central carbon (alpha carbon) bonded to an NH2 group and COOH group; In 19 of 20 C is chiral center. R is a functional group that determines the amino acid.
Microscopic pigments found in animal cells.
a sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharide) or polymers (polysaccharide)
A type of lipid found in cell membranes.
attraction between individual water molecules.
dead protein fibers
Describes a protein, the structure of which has been altered so that it no longer functions in the way it was meant to
2 bonded sugars
the _______ consists of waves at all possible energies, frequencies, and wavelengths.
A temporary complex formed when an enzyme binds to its substrate molecule(s).
Fluid surrounding and bathing a cell.
A type of organic acid that combines with glycerol to form lipids. Building blocks of lipids.
A molecule that combines with three fatty acids to form a lipid.
An extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found in the liver and muscle of animals; the animal equivalent of starch.
'water-loving'; substances that easily dissolve in water (e.g. salts).
All other compounds that are not organic.
Enzymes that function within cells.
hair and nails protein fibers
a class of biomolecules whose structures are mainly nonpolar
lock and key mechanism
Implies there is one substrate for each enzyme, the enzyme active site in an exact fit for the substrate.
Inorganic compounds present in food and required for normal functioning.
A simple carbohydrate, consisting of a carbon chain or ring with several alcohol groups and either an aldehyde or ketone group
Monomers that makeup nucleic acids
Complex compounds containing carbon.
= -log10 [H?(aq)]
A process when larger particles, mainly solids, enter a cell by being engulfed
A double layer of phospholipids that forms the basis of all cellular membranes. The phospholipids heads, which are hydrophillic, face the water of extra-cellular fluid or the cytoplasm; the tails, which are hydrophobic, are bu…
The small, circular segments of DNA that are found in bacteria and that stay separate from the bacterial chromosomes.
A chain of monosaccharide sugar molecules.
a term used to describe organic compounds that have more than one double or triple bond
A substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction.
50 or more bonded amino acids
(biochemistry) a long linear polymer of nucleotides found in the nucleus but mainly in the cytoplasm of a cell where it is associated with microsomes
a solution that is in equilibrium with respect to a given dissolved substance. (maximum amount of solute under normal conditions)
A _______ is a substance that can dissolve other substances.
A storage polysaccharide in plants consisting entirely of glucose.
A group of lipids having a wide range of functions.
a measure of how difficult it is to break the surface of a liquid
A type of lipid composed of three fatty acid tails attached to a glycerol unit.
a solution that is not in equilibrium with respect to a given dissolved substance and in which more of the substance can dissolve. (less than maximum amount of solute under normal conditions)
Organic compounds needed by living things in small amounts for normal functioning.