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Fundamentals of Chemistry IV


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solution
A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
colloids
Blood and blood components.
Acids
Compounds containing hydrogen that ionize to yield hydrogen ions in an aqueous solution
Bases
compounds that ionize to yield hydroxide ions in an aqueous solution
pH
= -log10 [H?(aq)]
7
neutral pH
acidic pH
below 7
basic/alkaline pH
above 7
organic chemistry
the field of chemistry dedicated to studying the structure, characteristics, and reactivity of carbon-containing compounds
functional groups
a part of a molecule that generally participates in chemical reactions as a unit
carbohydrates
a sugar (monosaccharide) or one of its dimers (disaccharide) or polymers (polysaccharide)
Monosaccharides
carbohydrate monomer
disaccharides
formed when two monosaccharides are connected by the removal of water and the formation of a glycosidic bond (sugar alcohol/sugar linkage).
Polysaccharides
Carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides
Polymers
Large compound formed from combinations of many monomers.
lipids
constitute a chemically diverse group of substances that
fats
contain the 3-carbon alcohol glycerol and one or more fatty acid
fatty acid
a carboxylic acid with a long carbon chain; vary in length and in the number and location of double bonds; 3 fatty acids linked to a glycerol molecule form a fat molecule, also know…
triacylglycerol (triglyceride)
a fat formed when three fatty acids are bonded to glycerol
Saturated fatty acid
A fatty acid in which all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected by single bonds, thus maximizing the number of hydrogen atoms that can attach to the carbon skeleton.
Unsaturated fatty acid
A fatty acid possessing one or more double bonds between the carbons in the hydrocarbon tail. Such bonding reduces the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon skeleton.
phospholipids
contain a phosphate group in place of a fatty acid
steroids
A group of lipids having a wide range of functions.
proteins
a polymer built from various combinations of 20 amino acid monomers
Amino Acids
An organic molecule containing a carboxyl group and an amino group; serves as the monomer of proteins.
peptide bonds
a bond between 2 amino acids
dipeptide
2 amino acids bonded by dehydration synthesis *covalent bonds
tripeptide
three amino acids linked together
Polypeptide
A polymer (chain) of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
primary structure
protein structure, consists of the specific sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain
secondary structure
protein structure consisting of the folding or coiling of amino acid chains into a particular pattern; helix or pleated sheet.
Tertiary Structure
Irregular contortions of a protein molecule due to interactions of side chains involved in hydrophobic interactions, ionic bonds, hydrogen bonds, and disulfide bridges. Also the third level
denaturation
conditions that disrupt H bonds and the protein structure; highly acidic or basic conditions and temp above 50 C.
enzymes
biological catalyst
Active Site
-small part of enzyme's surface (like a hollow carved into a mountainside)
Substrate
Contains aliphatic carbon
specificity
each enzyme acts on a particular substrate or on a certain kind of chemical bond.
observations
the act of viewing or noting a fact or occurrence for a scientific purpose
Formula
A chemical formula is a qualitative and quantitative description of the composition of a pure substance, either an **element or a compound**
unit
a specific category that describes a number
phase
The Phase of an oscillation is the amount the oscillation lags behind, or leads in front of a reference oscillation. For example, take a sine oscillation of maximum amplitude, A, and angular frequency, ω,…
physical change
A change in a substance that does not involve a change in the identity of the substance
endothermic
A chemical reaction that absorbs heat
exothermic
A chemical reaction that releases energy
melting
change from a solid to a liquid
freezing
change from a liquid to a solid
vaporization
change from a liquid to a gas
condensation
change from a gas to a liquid
sublimation
a change directly from the solid to the gaseous state without becoming liquid
heat of vaporization
amount of energy required at boiling point temperature to cause change of phase to occur
heat of fusion
amount of energy required at melting point temperature to cause change of phase to occur
chemical change
A change that occurs when one or more substances change into entirely new substances with different properties.
deposition
Change from a gas directly to a solid
Property
attribute common to all substances or objects of the same group
Extensive Properties
depend upon the amount of the substance (ex- mass and volume)
Chemical Properties
Characteristics that describe how matter acts during chemical reactions.
Fusion
Melting
solidification
changing from any phase into a solid
Tera-
10 to the 12th power
Hecto-
10 to the second power (100)
Deka-
10 to the 1st power (10)
Pico
10 to the negative 12th power
1000m
1kilometer
100 cm
MS) 1 m
10mm
MS) 1 cm
MS) 1 nm
10 to the negative 9 m
MS) 1 pm
10 to the negative 12th m
MS) 1 mm
10 to the negative 3 m
1760 yards
ES) 1 mile
5280 feet
ES) 1760 yards
3 feet
ES) 1 yard
1 foot
12 inches
1.609 km
IC(interconversion) 1 mile
39.37 inches
IC 1 meter
2.54 cm
IC 1 inch
Weight
measure of the force of gravity on the object
G=9.8m/s
this is acceleration due to gravity - it is always constant
Temperature
? T :: ? collisions :: ? rate of reaction
Farenheit
Boiling point- 212
Kelvin
SI unit of temperature; indicates number of units above absolute zero. To go from Celsius to Kelvin add 273. To go from Kelvin to Celsius subtract 273.
1.80(TC)+32
Formula for Farenheit
(TF-32)/1.80
Formula for Celsius
TC+273.15
Formula for Kelvin
K-273.15
Formula for Celsius
Force
A physical quantity that pushes, pulls or twists.
Pressure
amount of force acting on a unit area of surface
4.184 Joules
Energy - 1 Cal
10^3
Energy 1 kJ
4.284*10^3 Cal
Energy - Joule
Density= Mass/Volume
Density and Specific Gravity
Specific Gravity
Has no units - same deal as density
Calorie
a calorie is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree celsius
1/2(Mass)(velocity)^2
Kinetic Energy
Heat of reaction
is the quantity of heat released or absorbed during a chemical reaction.
Specific Heat formula
Final Temp-initial temp