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Level 85

States of Matter & Kinetic Molecular Theory & Atom


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Solid
Fixed shape and size, atoms are close together, ordered structure, not compressible
Liquid
matter is not compressible but flows
Gas
matter is compressible and can flow
Kinetic energy of particles
Depends on how much they move around
Intermolecular forces between particles
Intermolecular forces hold particles together in the solid and liquid phases
Temperature
? T :: ? collisions :: ? rate of reaction
melting
change from a solid to a liquid
sublimation
a change directly from the solid to the gaseous state without becoming liquid
Evaporation/boiling
From liquid to gas
deposition
Change from a gas directly to a solid
condensation
change from a gas to a liquid
freezing
change from a liquid to a solid
The same
Suppose that two boxes of different masses are connected by a string and pulled along a frictionless surface. Are the accelerations of the two boxes different or the same?
kinetic molecular theory
a theory based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion
Scientific model
A representation of a theory
Democritus suggested
All matter consists of very small particles
Atomos
Greek for indivisible
John Dalton's theory
Billiard ball model
Billiard ball
Each element is made up of a particular type of Atom
Radioactivity
Madame Curie
JJ Thompson
Plum pudding
Plum pudding
The atom is a small mass of positive matter with negatively charged particles
Ernest Rutherford
Discovered the nucleus in 1911 with his now famous gold foil experiment
Heisenberg
said that it is impossible to simultaneously know both the position and momentum of a moving particle
Uncertainty principle
It is impossible to determine both the velocity and the position of an electron at the same time
Schrodinger
Describe the behavior of electrons in and atom using advanced mathematics
orbital
A region of space around the nucleus where an electron is likely to be found.
Hydrogen
Acids always contain this element
proton
¹1P
Electron
A negatively charged subatomic particle located in the electron cloud outside the nucleus. It determines how atoms combine with other atoms.
neutron
¹0n
Nucleons
Collective term for two particles found in the nucleus
James Chadwick
Discovered the neutron
Rutherford's scattering experiment
This experiment demonstrated that the mass of an atom is in the nucleus
Empty space
Atoms are mostly made up of this
Pea on the center of the football stadium
Analogy for the size of the nucleus within an atom
Relative atomic mass
This mass scale is based on the carbon -12 atom
12
Carbon - 12's relative atomic mass
01-déc
Hydrogen's relative atomic mass
24-déc
Magnesium's relative atomic mass
Atomic Number
A unique number for each element on the periodic table that is equal to the number of protons in any atom of that element. 2. The elements Identity
mass number
Sum of protons and neutrons
Neutron number
The number of neutrons
Bohr's Model
A atomic model with small circle representing nucleus with charges and circles surrounding that for each energy level, with the electrons in that energy level.
Isotope
An atom of a particular element that contains a different number of neutrons
Relative Atomic Mass Formula
((%/100) x Isotope)+((%/100) x Isotope) = Average of all isotopes
Lowest Energy Level
Energy level with the lowest energy
excited state
A state in which an atom has a higher potential energy than it has in its ground state
Aufbau principle
a subshell is completely filled before electrons are placed in the next higher subshell; exceptions: Cr, Cu
Pauli's Exclusion Principle
An orbital can be occupied by a maximum of two paired electrons
Opposite Directions
Direction in which paired electrons spin
Hund's Rule
- electrons occupy equal energy orbitals so as to maximize the number of unpaired e-