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Any substance that flows
the lowest possible temperature, at which a material contains no extractable heat energy. Zero on the Kelvin temperature scale
at constant pressure, the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its Kelvin temperature
Combined gas law
A combination of Boyle's Law, Charles' Law, and Lussac's Law. V1P1/T1=V2P2/T2 (people vomit over toilets)
Pressure and Temperature are directly related; P1/T1=P2/T2
V1/n1 = V2/n2
Gay-Lussac's Law of combining gas volumes
The volume of gases taking part in a chemical reaction show simple whole number ratios to one another when those volumes are measured at the same temperature and pressure
Standard molar volume
Ideal gas constant
0.0821 L*atm/mol*k or 8.314 J/mol*K
A graph of pressure versus temperature that shows the conditions under which the phases of a substance exist
particles of matter are always in constant motion
State the kinetic-molecular theory of matter, and describe how it explains properties of matter.
expansion-no definite shape or volume; fill or take the shape of their container
Describe each of the following characteristic properties of gases: expansion, density, fluidity, compressibility, diffusion, and effusion.
Describe the conditions under which a real gas deviates from "ideal" gas behavior.
Real gas - gas that does not behave completely according to the assumptions of the kinetic-molecular theory
Particles in a liquid are in constant motion, just as in a gas
Describe the motion of particles in liquids and the properties of liquids according to the kinetic-molecular theory.
_______ is a way of separating substances in a solution that involves heating a liquid to a gas then collecting the solute that is left behind.
List the properties of liquids.
Liquids are more ordered than gases due to
Vaporization vs. Evaporation
Compare vaporization and evaporation.
Particles are more closely packed
Describe the motion of particles in solids and the properties of solids according to the kinetic molecular theory.
Gas to a solid
What would be an example of deposition?
In the phase diagram for water, what is meant by the triple point and the critical point?
Triple point: indicates the temperature and pressure conditions at which the solid, liquid, and vapor coexist at equilibrium
melting and evaporating
a.Describe all the phase changes a sample of solid water would undergo when heated to its critical temperature at a pressure of 1.00 atm.
b.Describe all the phase changes a sample of water vapor would undergo when cooled to 5C at a pressure of 1.00 atm.
c.At approximately what pressure will water be a vapor at 0C?
1 to 217.75atm
d.Within what range of pressures will water be a liquid at temperatures above its normal boiling point?
What is the solubility of potassium nitrate at 300 C? _______
How many grams of ammonia can I dissolve in 200 grams of water at a temperature of 450 C?
34 degrees celsius
At what temperature is the solubility of sodium chloride the same as the solubility of potassium chloride?
How many grams of ammonium chloride would I need to make 300 grams of a saturated solution at 700 C?
What do all of the compounds that decreased in solubility over the temperature range in the graph have in common?
What compound is least soluble at 400 C?
What ionic compound is least soluble at 40. 0 C?
What is the vapor pressure of CHCl3 at 50C?
70 degrees celsius
external pressure is 30 kPa?
75 degrees celsius
What is the normal boiling point of CCl4?
Which substance has the weakest IMF?
highest vapor pressure will be the lowest IMF (inversely proportional)
5 degrees C
What is the melting point of the substance?
15 degrees C
What is the boiling point of the substance?
both carbons have different groups, the first priorities on opposite sides
Which of these have the smallest electron affinity? B, C, N, O, or F.
change the pressure
You have ice at -10C and 1 atm. What could you do in order cause the ice to sublime?
Heat and Heat capacity
heat of fusion
amount of energy required at melting point temperature to cause change of phase to occur
heat of vaporization
amount of energy required at boiling point temperature to cause change of phase to occur
london-dispersion, hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole
what are the three types of intermolecular forces?
intermolecular forces are less in what state?
Intermolecular forces are strongest in what state?
lowest pressure where it can stay a liquid state at critical temperature
What do coefficients in a balanced equation represent for gases?
? T :: ? collisions :: ? rate of reaction
kinetic molecular theory
a theory based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion
Fixed shape and size, atoms are close together, ordered structure, not compressible
A different form of the same element in the same physical state.
Crystalline and Amorphous
What are the two types of solids?
A solid that is orderly arranged. Ex: Desk
A solid that is randomly arranged. Ex: Play-dough
A law stating the ratio between the volume and temperature of a gas is constant. This means that the greater the temperature, the greater the volume and vice versa.
A law stating inverse relationship exists between the volume and pressure of a gas. This means that the greater the pressure, the less the volume and vice versa.
A law stating that the pressure of a gas is directly related to its absolute temperature. Hence the ratio of pressure to absolute temperature is a constant.
Temperature, Volume, and Pressure.
What variables affect the behavior of gases?
What is the Boyles Law equation?
What is the Charles Law equation?
What is the Lussac Law equation?
the weight of the Earth's atmosphere pushes down on the liquid and forces it into your mouth
What actually occurs when you drink through a straw is that you suck the air out of the straw and...?
pressure ( P ) & temperature (T)
Gas volume (V) changes significantly with what two factors...?
In physics, a force is said to do work when it acts on a body so that there is a displacement of the point of application, however small, in the direction of the force. …
When a sample of gas is heated, it is able to greatly...?
When a gas is cooled, it...?
Gases, such as through pipes, flow very...?
densities (g/L rather than g/mL)
Gases, such as oxygen (O2 (g)), have relatively low...?
its volume decreases
When a gas cools, its density increases, because...?
Air, being a solution of 18 gases, shows that gases form a solution in...?
pressure ( P ), volume (V), temperature (T), & the amount (n, in moles)
The physical behavior of a sample of gas can be descried completely by what four variables...?
measuring the other three
The variables of a gas are interdependent, which means any one of them can be determined by...?
Boyle's, Charles's, and Avogadro's gas laws each express the affect of one variable on another, with the remaining two variables...?
the particles in a gas are very far apart
Gases readily change volume, flow freely, have a low density, and form solutions because...?
pressure on the walls of its container
You can blow up a balloon or pump up a tire because a gas exerts...?
A pressure in the air. Caused by the change in the density of the air at different elevations. High elevations are less dense. Low elevations are very dense.
millimeters of mercury (mmHg)
Because the pressure of the mercury column in a barometer is directly proportional to its height, a unit commonly used for pressure is...?
Why do barometers contain mercury, rather than water...?
because the high density of mercury allows a barometer to be a convenient size
force divided by area
Pressure ( P ) is equal to...?
Why does pulling back the plunger in a syringe, draw in liquid...?
the increase in area of the tube, causes a decrease in pressure, and liquid moves to the lower pressure area
An ideal gas, is one that exhibits linear relationships among...?
pressure ( P ), volume (V), temperature (T), & amount (n)
Are ions electrically neutral?
applied external pressure ( P )
Boyle's law states that at constant temperature (T constant), the volume (V) of a fixed amount of gas (n constant) is inversely proportional to the...?
its absolute (Kelvin) temperature
Charle's law states that at constant pressure ( P constant ), the volume (V) occupied by a fixed amount of gas (n constant) is directly proportional to...?
zero volume (V = 0)
Absolute zero (T = 0 K or -273.15°C) is the temperature at which an ideal gas would have...?
gas law calculations
Kelvins scale must always be used in...?
equal numbers of particles (moles)
Avogodro's law states that at fixed temperature (T fixed) and pressure (P fixed), equal volumes (V) of any ideal gas contain...?
an increase in the temperature (T) and number of moles formed (n) of the gas
What causes the increase of volume (V) of a gas pushing a piston back within an engine...?
How do yeast that have digested sugar, cause dough to rise in the oven...?
the carbon dioxide gas produced by the yeast digesting sugar (n), and the temperature of the oven (T) both cause an increase in the volume of a gas (V)
How does the diaphragm allow breathing...?
it incases volume of the lungs (V), which decreases pressure of the lungs ( P ), which causes gas (air) to rush in
standard temperature and pressure (STP)
0ºC/ 237 K- Temperature and 100kPa -Pressure
STP is equal to...?
0°C (273.15K) & 1 atm (760 torr)
ideal gas law (PV=nRT)
By combining Boyle's, Charle's, and Avogadro's law, we obtain the...?
phases of matter
arrangements of particles into solids, liquids, gases, plasmas and Bose-Einstein condensates
Atoms or molecules are arranged in geometric patterns with long-range, repeating order. EX: Salt and Diamonds
Atoms or molecules do not have long-range order. EX: Glass, rubber, and plastic
friction or resistance to motion when molecules move past each other in a liquid
a measure of how difficult it is to break the surface of a liquid
Force exerted by vapor particles directly above a liquid
charged particles broken into electrons and ions that move fast with lots of energy, no definite shape or volume, very compressible
super cold matter where atoms are slowed down to a few millionths of a degree above absolute zero so that they condense and clump together into waves
A container holds 500. mL of CO₂ at 742 torr. What will be the volume of the CO₂ if the pressure is increased to 795 torr?
a directly proportional relationship between the temperature and pressure of a confined gas
Kelvin temperature scale
absolute temperature scale based on the volume of a gas at a constant pressure (when the temperature is zero, the volume is zero)
mathematical relationship between two variables that change at the same ratio
mathematical relationship between two variables that change at an inverse ratio
_______is the amount of a substance that contains the same number of particles as the number of atoms in 12 g of carbon-12. That would be 6.02 x 10 23 atoms.
a number used to make units in an equation solvable
A chemical reaction that absorbs heat
A chemical reaction that releases energy
Internal energy is aka
a physical change where matter moves from one phase to another
change from a liquid to a gas
changing from any phase into a liquid
changing from any phase into a solid
changing from the liquid to the gas phase at a specific temperature and pressure
changing from a gas to the plasma phase; atoms become ions when the outer electrons are stripped away
changing from the plasma to the gas phase; ions become atoms with the return of electrons
a temperature and pressure where matter can exist in all three phases at the same time
PV/T α k
Combined Gas Law
PV = nRT
Equation for gas law
P₁V₁ = P₂V₂
Boyle's Law with change
V₁/T₁ = V₂/T₂
Charles' Law with change
P₁V₁/T₁ = P₂V₂/T₂
Combined Gas Law with change
P₁/T₁ = P₂/T₂
Gay-Lussac's Law with change
V₁/n₁ = V₂/n₂
Avogadro's Law with change