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Level 82

Ideal Gas Law & Charles, Boyle & Avogadro's Laws


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Charles Law
A law stating the ratio between the volume and temperature of a gas is constant. This means that the greater the temperature, the greater the volume and vice versa.
Boyle's Law
A container holds 500. mL of CO₂ at 742 torr. What will be the volume of the CO₂ if the pressure is increased to 795 torr?
The Ideal Gas Law
Pressure must be in Atmospheres (atm)
29.9 inches Hg (mercury)
1 Atmosphere = (6 converters)
P₁V₁/T₁ = P₂V₂/T₂
The combined gas law uses Boyle's Law, Charles's Law, and Gay-Lussac's Law (n is constant).
properties that do not change.
By using the combined gas law, we can derive any of the gas laws by omitting those
Avogadro's law states that
the volume of a gas is directly related to the number of moles (n) of gas.
standard temperature (273 K) and standard pressure (1 atm).
To make comparisons between different gases, we use arbitrary conditions called
STP.
Standard temperature and pressure is abbreviated as
Standard temperature (T) =
0 C or 273 K
Standard pressure (P) =
1 atm (760 mmHg)
22.4 L for 1 mole of any gas.
The molar volume of a gas measured at STP (standard temperature and pressure) is
22.4 L.
Avogadro's law indicates that 1 mole of any gas at STP has a volume of
The molar volume at STP
-has about the same volume as 3 basketballs.
STP conditions.
The volume or amount of a gas at STP in a chemical reaction can be calculated from
-pressure (P),
The four properties used in the measurement of a gas,
ideal gas law. PV = nRT
amount (n), can be combined to give a single expression called the
R.
Rearranging the ideal gas law equation shows that the four gas properties equal a constant,
To calculate the value of R,
we substitute the STP conditions for molar volume into the expression:
In a gas mixture, each gas exerts its partial pressure,
which is the pressure it would exert if it were the only gas in the container.
partial pressures of the gases in the mixture.
Dalton's law states that the total pressure of a gas mixture is the sum of the
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
indicates that pressure depends on the total number of gas particles.
as one mole of a gas mixture in a 22.4 L container.
For example, at STP, one mole of a pure gas will exert the same pressure
Air is a mixture of gases, including
nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, argon, and water gases.
In the lungs, O2 enters the blood,
at the same time that CO2 is released.
which release CO2 into the blood.
In the tissues, O2 enters the cells,
higher in blood and lower in the tissues.
In the body, O2 flows into the tissues because the partial pressure of O2 is
is higher in the tissues and lower in the blood.
In the body, CO2 flows out of the tissues because the partial pressure of CO2