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Pressure

vector

Formula for Pressure

Pressure = Force/Area

Pa

Protactinium

Formula for area

Length x Width

psi

a unit of pressure

Pressure increases force increases

Pressure directly proportional to force

Pressure and area are inversely proportional

If you increase the area by 2x, then the pressure would decrease by ½

F = 10N

Steps for Pascal equation

Pa equals

Pa = Newton/ meter2

Boyle's Law

A container holds 500. mL of CO₂ at 742 torr. What will be the volume of the CO₂ if the pressure is increased to 795 torr?

increases, directly proportional

If the temperature increases, volume

increases, inversely proportional

If the volume of a gas decreases, the pressure

Temperature

? T :: ? collisions :: ? rate of reaction

more because there is less space

If volume deceases there are more or less collisions of particles?

Which law when graphed is a straight line?

Charles' Law, because temperature and volume are directly proportional

Why do mountain climbers need to carry oxygen tanks?

as air pressure decreases volume of the oxygen decreases, Boyle's Law

Why do ears pop on an airplane?

as the air pressure decreases, the pressure in your ears increases, Boyle's Law

The Law of Conservation of Mass

Mass cannot be created or destroyed but changes form

as volume decreases pressure increases, molecules more compact

If volume of a gas decreases how does that affect the pressure?

more collisions because there is less space

If the volume decreases are there more or fewer collisions of particles?

Increasing Pressure

Reducing the area over which the force is exerted.

Decreasing Pressure

Increasing the area over which the force is exerted.

Atmospheric Pressure

A pressure in the air. Caused by the change in the density of the air at different elevations. High elevations are less dense. Low elevations are very dense.

Hydraulic Systems

When a force is exerted to one side of the system, it increases when it gets to the other piston. A force applied to the small area piston travels to the larger piston wi…

Potential Energy

Energy Diagram's Y axis

Thermal Energy

energy associated with the motion of the particles of a substance

Energy

The measurable quantity that describes changes in matter brought about by forces.

Work

Work = Force · Distance

Energy and Work Relationship

Work yields a change in energy.

W=Fd

Work Formula

PE=mgh

Potential Energy Formula

KE=1/2*m*v2

Kinetic Energy Formula

Archimedes Principle

The buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object.

Paschal's Principle

The principle that states that a change in pressure at any point in an enclosed fluid is transmitted equally through all parts of the fluid.

Von Guericke's Experiment

Demonstrated how great atmospheric pressure is. He took a metal sphere, closed it, removed all the air from inside it, unlocked it, and watched the two halves stay together on their own. The atmosphere's pres…

Buoyant Force

A force generated on object. The weight the fluid displaces determines the strength of the buoyant force.

Boyle's Experiment

Demonstrated that pressure and volume remain constant. When volume increases, pressure decreases. Also, doubling the pressure made the volume decrease by half, because they are proportional.

Newtons - N

What is force - F - measured in?

Kilograms - kg

What is mass - m - measured in?

Metres - m

What is length - L/l - measured in?

Metres squared - m2

What is area - A - measured in?

Newtons/centimetre squared - N/cm2

What are the ways pressure - P - are measured in?

760mm of Hg

What is 1 Atmos worth?

10

On Earth, how many Newtons are equal to a kilogram?

Pressure = Force ÷ Area

How do you work out pressure, force and area?

Solids, liquids and gases

What can pressures be measured for?

Smaller, pressure, surface area, smaller

The _______ the surface area, the greater the _______. The greater the _______, the _______ the pressure.

An ice skate, then a slipper, then a snowshoe.

Which would have the greatest pressure if the same force is put upon it: a slipper, an ice skate, or a snowshoe.

It doubles.

I stand with two feet on the floor. Then I lift one foot up. What happens to the pressure?

How do hydraulic brakes work?

The car brake is pressed. A piston puts pressure on brake fluids in Cylinder A. This increases the pressure on the trapped brake fluid. The fluid in cylinder B has the same pressure and pu…

The bottom hole, then the middle hole, then the top hole.

There is a full bottle of water with three small holes aligned vertically on its side. Water comes out of each hole. Which hole shoots water the furthest?

The pressure in a liquid increases with depth.

What happens to pressure in liquids as you get deeper?

A dam is narrower at the top and thicker at the base. Why?

There is more pressure at the base in a liquid, so the dam must be thicker there so it doesn't break.

What is pressure in fluids caused by?

The particles moving in all directions and colliding with things.

The pressure increases.

What happens when a gas is compresses?

What does a hydraulic system do?

It uses a liquid to send to a force from one place to another.

The air pressure decreases.

What happens when we go higher in the atmosphere?

100 000 N/m2

What is the atmospheric pressure at sea level?

Why are we not crushed by air pressure?

There is pressure inside our bodies exactly matching the air pressure outside.

Force per unit area.

What is pressure defined as?

Just do it.

Draw the particles in a solid, liquid and a gas.

Why is upthrust?

An upward force, caused by the difference in pressure from the liquid at the top and bottom of the object.

What does pneumatic mean?

'Connected with air pressure.'

Is it dangerous to heat a closed container?

Yes, as the gas pressure can build up and the container might explode.

fluid

when an object moves through a liquid or a gas

float or sink

density greater than 1g/ml

Pascal's Principle

pressure applied to a fluid in a closed container will be equal throughout the container

Bernoulli's Principle

pressure in a moving stream of fluid is less than the pressure in the surrounding fluid

pressure decreases

as area increases

Volume

A measure of space (lwh)

amount

moles

1dm=

10cm

1cm^3=

1mL

mmHg

760

barr

1.01325

kPa

101.325

torr

760

273

Celsius to Kelvin

coldest temperature

absolute 0 (kelvin)

what happens at absolute 0?

nothing moves, everything is completely still

kinetic molecular theory

a theory based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion

STP Standards

T= 25 degrees C/ 273 degrees K

Pressure Formula

Pressure= force/area

Barometer

a device that measures atmospheric pressure

Manometer

a device that measures the pressure in a container

Charles Law

A law stating the ratio between the volume and temperature of a gas is constant. This means that the greater the temperature, the greater the volume and vice versa.

Avagadro's law

at the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of all gases contain the same number of molecules.

Dalton's Law

Law of Partial pressures

r=

.0821

Pressure, Volume, and Temperature

P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2 -Two Different Scenarios

Density

amount of mass per units volume

Fusion

Melting

r1/r2=square root m2/m1

Graham's Law of Efusion

Rigid Containers

do not expand as gasses expand

How is the mercury supported in a barometer?

the atmosphere is pushing down on the reservoir of Mercury and that pressure supports the Mercury

How does something become a liquid?

under high pressure and low temperature

Ideal Gas vs. Real Gas

ideal gas is one that abides by all the kinetic postulates and the macroscopic properties