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V/n = V/n

What's the Avogadro's Law

PV = PV

What's the Boyle's Law

V/T = V/T

What's the Charles Law

1 atm

What is the air pressure at sea level?

760 mm Hg = 1 atm

How many mm Hg in 1 atm?

1 mm Hg = 1 torr

How many mm Hg in 1 torr?

What is the measurement of 1 atm derived from?

1 atm is derived from the a column of air exactly 1m² starting from sea level going all the way up to space and has a mass of 10⁴ kg = 760 mm Hg

Formula for pressure?

force / area

Evangelista Torrecelli ("torr")

Who invented the barometer?

Tell me about Boyle's law

∗"Let me Boyle you some Potatoes and Veggies!"

Tell me about Charle's law

∗"I just saw Charlie Brown on TV!"

Tell me about Avogadro's law

∗"Avogadro always wants to know how many aVocados / mole of something (V / n)!"

∗"Guys cause Teen Pregnancy!"

Tell me about Gay-Lussac's law

Temp = 273 Kelvin

What are the values for STP?

Redefine PV=nRT in terms of density

D = mass / Vol = g / L →

Explain Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures

P total = P₁ + P₂ + P₃ + ...

Explain Gram's Law

The fastest molecule has the smallest molar mass

Explain Gram's Law relating r and t

r₁ / r₂ = t₂ / t₁

Explain Gram's Law relating r and molar mass (MM)

r₁ / r₂ = √ ( MM₂ / MM₁)

Explain Gram's Law relating t and molar mass (MM)

t₂ / t₁ = √ ( MM₂ / MM₁)

What's the formula for non-ideal gases

use any of these Van der Waals formulas:

high temperatures and low pressures

Under what conditions are gases "ideal"

pressure (P)

the force acting on a unit of area of a surface; caused by collision of molecules

volume (V)

the amount of space an object occupies - unit: Liters (L)

temperature (T)

A half-life (t1/2) is a characteristic of a reaction at a given...?

Kelvin (K)

SI unit of temperature; the temperature of a substance is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of the particles, so that zero on the scare corresponds with zero kinetic energy.

Boyle's Law

A container holds 500. mL of CO₂ at 742 torr. What will be the volume of the CO₂ if the pressure is increased to 795 torr?

Charles' law

This states that the volume of a fixed mass of an ideal gas at constant pressure is directly proportional to its absolute temperature.

ideal gas law

law that states the math relationship of pressure (P), volume (V), temperature (T), the gas constant (R=0.0821), and the number of moles of a gas (n); PV=nRT.

Combined gas law

A combination of Boyle's Law, Charles' Law, and Lussac's Law. V1P1/T1=V2P2/T2 (people vomit over toilets)

standard temperature and pressure (STP)

0ºC/ 237 K- Temperature and 100kPa -Pressure

kinetic molecular theory

a theory based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion

ideal gas

a gas in which the particles undergo elastic collisions (when particles collide, there is no loss in the speed of the particles)

Pressure Conversion Factors

1 atm = 760 mmHg = 760 torr = 101.3 kPa

n

amount of gas in moles

ideal gas constant (R)

-if pressure is measured in atmospheres: 0.0821(L*atm)/(mol*K)

Avogadro's law

the gas law stating that, at fixed temperature and pressure, equal volume of any ideal gas contain equal numbers of particles, and, therefore, the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its amount (mol)

Dalton's Law

Law of Partial pressures

Barometer

a device that measures atmospheric pressure

mols/liter

the volume of one mole of gas at STP, 22.4 L

Gas

one of the 4 physical states that has the properties of diffusion, effusion, high kinetic energy, expansion and compression

Expansion

Takes the whole volume of the container that holds them

Fluidity

Move easily past one another

Low density

Small mass over a large area

Compressible

Reduction of volume when pressure is added

effusion

A process by which gas particles pass through a tiny opening

Diffusion

Ability of gases to mix

Gases Consist of-

Larger numbers of tiny particles that are FAR apart(Relative to their sizes)

Continuous, rapid motion

Gas particles are in

elastic(Not net loss of motion)

Collisions between gas particles and any of the container walls are

Between gas particles

No forces of attraction or repulsion

the temperature of the gas

Average kinetic energy of gas particles depends on

Amount of gas particles

n, Units in Moles and a standard amount is 1 mole

Volume(V)

Measures the size of the container holding the gas

Tempeture(T)

Measures the average molecular speed of the molecule

Pressure(P)

Measures the forces acting on a unit area of the walls of the container

Units of Pressure=

Atmospheres(atm),Torr or millimeters of mercury(Torr, mmHg), Kilo Pascals(kPa)

Standard Pressure Units

1 atm=760 Torr=760 mmHg= 101.3 kPa

Barometers measure the

Height difference between liquid and gas and measures the pressure

Manometer

a device that measures the pressure in a container

Subtract the difference

Manometer, height of gas is higher then atmosphere

Add the difference

Manometer, height of gas is lower then atmosphere

Density

amount of mass per units volume

Mass=

moles

m=

n*mm

Units:

g=mol*g/mol

D=

(n*MM)/V

system

the reaction or area under study

closed system

total mass of the system does not change

created, destroyed

The Law of Conservation of Energy states that energy can be neither:

760 torr

1 atm= _______ torr = 760 mmHg =101.325kPa

C°+273

K = _______°+_______

standard temperature

the conditions under which the volume of a gas is usually measured; standard temperature is 0 degrees C, and standard pressure is 101.3 kPA, or atmosphere(atm)

Kelvin

Boiling point- 373

exothermic

A chemical reaction that releases energy

endothermic

A chemical reaction that absorbs heat

Work

Gases under pressure, such as the compression of air in a tire, can do a lot of...?

state function

a property of the system determined by its current state, regardless of how it arrived at that state.

Enthalpy

Amount of energy within a system

∆H= mc∆T

change in enthalpy

Heat Capacity

The quantity of heat (usually in Joules) required to change the temperature of a given amount of a substance by 1 degree Celsius (also in Kelvin)

Temperature

? T :: ? collisions :: ? rate of reaction

heat

a flow of energy due to a temperature difference

-q₂

q₁ __

Hess's Law

The overall enthalpy change for a reaction is equal to the sum of the enthalpy changes for individual steps in the reaction

reverse the sign

In Hess's Law problems, if the reaction is reversed, then you must _______ of the delta H value.

multiply

In Hess's Law problems, if the reaction is multiplied, then you must also _______ delta H by that factor.

Zero

A plot of reactant concentration versus time gives a straight line. What is the order of the rxn for this reactant?

P₁V₁=P₂V₂

Boyles law

V₁/T₁ = V₂/T₂

Charles law

Guy-Lussac

P₁/T₁=P₂/T₂

(P₁*V₁)/T₁=(P₂*V₂)/T₂

combined gas law

V₁n₁=V₂n₂

Avogadro's Law

increased pressure

Increased temperature leads to _______.

√(3*R*T)/(molar mass in kg)

average velocity of a collection of gases

joules (J)

What is the SI unit for gravitational potential energy?

grams

m, mass, is measured in _______.

joules/g*C°

c, specific heat capacity, is measured in _______/_______.

degrees celsius

∆T is measured in _______.

Percent error formula

(absolute error/accepted value) x 100

Gay Lussac's Law

A gas has a pressure of 0.12 atm at 21.0° C. What is the pressure at 0.0°C ?

Charle's Law

As Volume increases temperature increases as long as pressure is held constant. V1/T1=V2/T2

Graham's Law

rateA/rateB=squareroot of MMb/MMa

mole fraction

fraction of moles of a component gas in the total moles of a gas mixture (na/nt)=Xa

1atm

101.3kPa or 760 mmHg

273Kelvins

0 degrees Celcius

Average Kinetic Energy of particles

is directly proportional to the absolute temperature.

Gases consist of

atoms or molecules in constant, random motion.

Root mean square velocity

equals the square root of 3RT/M: T=temp(K); R=8.3145 (J/Kxmol); M=molar gass (kg/mol)

p

momentum

V

Volume symbol

R

Radius (m)

T

Temperature symbol

V=kn

This equation states for a gas at constant temperature and pressure, the volume is directly proportional to the number of moles of gas.

Moles

Mass over Molar Mass

faster

A catalyst causes the product to form...?

X

Partial Pressure Symbol