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Level 73

Gases


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V/n = V/n
What's the Avogadro's Law
PV = PV
What's the Boyle's Law
V/T = V/T
What's the Charles Law
1 atm
What is the air pressure at sea level?
760 mm Hg = 1 atm
How many mm Hg in 1 atm?
1 mm Hg = 1 torr
How many mm Hg in 1 torr?
What is the measurement of 1 atm derived from?
1 atm is derived from the a column of air exactly 1m² starting from sea level going all the way up to space and has a mass of 10⁴ kg = 760 mm Hg
Formula for pressure?
force / area
Evangelista Torrecelli ("torr")
Who invented the barometer?
Tell me about Boyle's law
∗"Let me Boyle you some Potatoes and Veggies!"
Tell me about Charle's law
∗"I just saw Charlie Brown on TV!"
Tell me about Avogadro's law
∗"Avogadro always wants to know how many aVocados / mole of something (V / n)!"
∗"Guys cause Teen Pregnancy!"
Tell me about Gay-Lussac's law
Temp = 273 Kelvin
What are the values for STP?
Redefine PV=nRT in terms of density
D = mass / Vol = g / L →
Explain Dalton's Law of Partial Pressures
P total = P₁ + P₂ + P₃ + ...
Explain Gram's Law
The fastest molecule has the smallest molar mass
Explain Gram's Law relating r and t
r₁ / r₂ = t₂ / t₁
Explain Gram's Law relating r and molar mass (MM)
r₁ / r₂ = √ ( MM₂ / MM₁)
Explain Gram's Law relating t and molar mass (MM)
t₂ / t₁ = √ ( MM₂ / MM₁)
What's the formula for non-ideal gases
use any of these Van der Waals formulas:
high temperatures and low pressures
Under what conditions are gases "ideal"
pressure (P)
the force acting on a unit of area of a surface; caused by collision of molecules
volume (V)
the amount of space an object occupies - unit: Liters (L)
temperature (T)
A half-life (t1/2) is a characteristic of a reaction at a given...?
Kelvin (K)
SI unit of temperature; the temperature of a substance is directly proportional to the average kinetic energy of the particles, so that zero on the scare corresponds with zero kinetic energy.
Boyle's Law
A container holds 500. mL of CO₂ at 742 torr. What will be the volume of the CO₂ if the pressure is increased to 795 torr?
Charles' law
This states that the volume of a fixed mass of an ideal gas at constant pressure is directly proportional to its absolute temperature.
ideal gas law
law that states the math relationship of pressure (P), volume (V), temperature (T), the gas constant (R=0.0821), and the number of moles of a gas (n); PV=nRT.
Combined gas law
A combination of Boyle's Law, Charles' Law, and Lussac's Law. V1P1/T1=V2P2/T2 (people vomit over toilets)
standard temperature and pressure (STP)
0ºC/ 237 K- Temperature and 100kPa -Pressure
kinetic molecular theory
a theory based on the idea that particles of matter are always in motion
ideal gas
a gas in which the particles undergo elastic collisions (when particles collide, there is no loss in the speed of the particles)
Pressure Conversion Factors
1 atm = 760 mmHg = 760 torr = 101.3 kPa
n
amount of gas in moles
ideal gas constant (R)
-if pressure is measured in atmospheres: 0.0821(L*atm)/(mol*K)
Avogadro's law
the gas law stating that, at fixed temperature and pressure, equal volume of any ideal gas contain equal numbers of particles, and, therefore, the volume of a gas is directly proportional to its amount (mol)
Dalton's Law
Law of Partial pressures
Barometer
a device that measures atmospheric pressure
mols/liter
the volume of one mole of gas at STP, 22.4 L
Gas
one of the 4 physical states that has the properties of diffusion, effusion, high kinetic energy, expansion and compression
Expansion
Takes the whole volume of the container that holds them
Fluidity
Move easily past one another
Low density
Small mass over a large area
Compressible
Reduction of volume when pressure is added
effusion
A process by which gas particles pass through a tiny opening
Diffusion
Ability of gases to mix
Gases Consist of-
Larger numbers of tiny particles that are FAR apart(Relative to their sizes)
Continuous, rapid motion
Gas particles are in
elastic(Not net loss of motion)
Collisions between gas particles and any of the container walls are
Between gas particles
No forces of attraction or repulsion
the temperature of the gas
Average kinetic energy of gas particles depends on
Amount of gas particles
n, Units in Moles and a standard amount is 1 mole
Volume(V)
Measures the size of the container holding the gas
Tempeture(T)
Measures the average molecular speed of the molecule
Pressure(P)
Measures the forces acting on a unit area of the walls of the container
Units of Pressure=
Atmospheres(atm),Torr or millimeters of mercury(Torr, mmHg), Kilo Pascals(kPa)
Standard Pressure Units
1 atm=760 Torr=760 mmHg= 101.3 kPa
Barometers measure the
Height difference between liquid and gas and measures the pressure
Manometer
a device that measures the pressure in a container
Subtract the difference
Manometer, height of gas is higher then atmosphere
Add the difference
Manometer, height of gas is lower then atmosphere
Density
amount of mass per units volume
Mass=
moles
m=
n*mm
Units:
g=mol*g/mol
D=
(n*MM)/V
system
the reaction or area under study
closed system
total mass of the system does not change
created, destroyed
The Law of Conservation of Energy states that energy can be neither:
760 torr
1 atm= _______ torr = 760 mmHg =101.325kPa
C°+273
K = _______°+_______
standard temperature
the conditions under which the volume of a gas is usually measured; standard temperature is 0 degrees C, and standard pressure is 101.3 kPA, or atmosphere(atm)
Kelvin
Boiling point- 373
exothermic
A chemical reaction that releases energy
endothermic
A chemical reaction that absorbs heat
Work
Gases under pressure, such as the compression of air in a tire, can do a lot of...?
state function
a property of the system determined by its current state, regardless of how it arrived at that state.
Enthalpy
Amount of energy within a system
∆H= mc∆T
change in enthalpy
Heat Capacity
The quantity of heat (usually in Joules) required to change the temperature of a given amount of a substance by 1 degree Celsius (also in Kelvin)
Temperature
? T :: ? collisions :: ? rate of reaction
heat
a flow of energy due to a temperature difference
-q₂
q₁ __
Hess's Law
The overall enthalpy change for a reaction is equal to the sum of the enthalpy changes for individual steps in the reaction
reverse the sign
In Hess's Law problems, if the reaction is reversed, then you must _______ of the delta H value.
multiply
In Hess's Law problems, if the reaction is multiplied, then you must also _______ delta H by that factor.
Zero
A plot of reactant concentration versus time gives a straight line. What is the order of the rxn for this reactant?
P₁V₁=P₂V₂
Boyles law
V₁/T₁ = V₂/T₂
Charles law
Guy-Lussac
P₁/T₁=P₂/T₂
(P₁*V₁)/T₁=(P₂*V₂)/T₂
combined gas law
V₁n₁=V₂n₂
Avogadro's Law
increased pressure
Increased temperature leads to _______.
√(3*R*T)/(molar mass in kg)
average velocity of a collection of gases
joules (J)
What is the SI unit for gravitational potential energy?
grams
m, mass, is measured in _______.
joules/g*C°
c, specific heat capacity, is measured in _______/_______.
degrees celsius
∆T is measured in _______.
Percent error formula
(absolute error/accepted value) x 100
Gay Lussac's Law
A gas has a pressure of 0.12 atm at 21.0° C. What is the pressure at 0.0°C ?
Charle's Law
As Volume increases temperature increases as long as pressure is held constant. V1/T1=V2/T2
Graham's Law
rateA/rateB=squareroot of MMb/MMa
mole fraction
fraction of moles of a component gas in the total moles of a gas mixture (na/nt)=Xa
1atm
101.3kPa or 760 mmHg
273Kelvins
0 degrees Celcius
Average Kinetic Energy of particles
is directly proportional to the absolute temperature.
Gases consist of
atoms or molecules in constant, random motion.
Root mean square velocity
equals the square root of 3RT/M: T=temp(K); R=8.3145 (J/Kxmol); M=molar gass (kg/mol)
p
momentum
V
Volume symbol
R
Radius (m)
T
Temperature symbol
V=kn
This equation states for a gas at constant temperature and pressure, the volume is directly proportional to the number of moles of gas.
Moles
Mass over Molar Mass
faster
A catalyst causes the product to form...?
X
Partial Pressure Symbol