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Fundamentals of Chemistry II

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Crystalline Solid
Atoms or molecules are arranged in geometric patterns with long-range, repeating order. EX: Salt and Diamonds
Amorphous Solid
Atoms or molecules do not have long-range order. EX: Glass, rubber, and plastic
2 Hydrogen atoms bonded together is a _______
A pure substance composed of two or more elements in fixed definite proportions. This can be broken down into simpler substances
A pure substance or a mixture
When matter contains two types of atoms, it may be what two things?
A _______ is a combination of two or more substances that do not change chemically when you mix them.
An element or a compound
Pure substances may be what two things?
A mixture may be what two things?
A homogeneous mixture (such as sweet tea) or a heterogeneous mixture (such as hydrocarbon and water)
chemical property
A characteristic of a pure substance that describes its ability to change into different substances
physical property
A characteristic of a pure substance that can be observed without changing it into another substance
In a combustion reaction, you must have what?
Intensive properties and Extensive properties
What are the two main types of physical properties?
intensive property
a physical property such as boiling point, density, or color that does NOT change when you change the size of an object.
extensive property
a physical property such as mass that changes when you change the size of an object
_______ is a way of separating liquid substances in a solution that involves heating a liquid and condensing the vapors or gases that form.
a method of separating solid particles from a liquid or gas, using filter paper
A polar solvent
A polar solute will dissolve in what?
A non-polar solvent
A non-polar solute will dissolve in what?
Chemical Reaction
Matter is neither created nor destroyed in what type of reaction?
Nuclear Reaction
In the Law of Conservation of Matter, what reaction is the exception because significant changes in mass can occur?
During physical and chemical changes, the total amount of matter remains what?
The ability to do work
the transfer of energy that occurs when a force makes an object move
What does the Law of Conservation of Energy state?
That energy is neither created nor destroyed, but can be transformed from one state to another
1 calorie= 4.184 joules
What is the equation for Kinetic Energy?
Work =
Force times distance
Force =
Mass times acceleration
Internal Energy
the sum of the kinetic and potential energies of all the particles in a system.
Chemical Energy
Energy released or absorbed during a chemical reaction. A form of potential energy associated with the positions of the particles that compose a chemical system
Electrical Energy
the energy flowing in an electrical circuit
Thermal Energy
the kinetic energy associated with the motions of the molecules or atoms in a substance
Kinetic Energy
the energy contained in moving objects
Potential Energy
The energy of position. Depends on mass and position. SI units Joules
1kg m^2/s^2
1 Joule =
Lowers their potential energy
Systems with a high potential energy have a tendency to change in a way that does what?
a flow of energy due to a temperature difference
Stop completely
Absolute Zero is the temperature at which the molecular motion does what?
science is made up of
observations and inferences (conclusion based on evidence)
science is
previous knowledge
what knowledge plays an important role in science
what is science based on
(ex mg)
chemistry is
a physical science
properties of matter include
composition, structure, size, changes
measure of how much solute is contained in a given amount of solvent
Larger size means a stronger acid
how it behaves when its environment changes
why do we study chemistry?
to understand the world on a molecular elvel
how do we study chemistry?
what is the scientific method
-1- observing (using 5 senses)