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Level 61

Introduction to Stoichiometry


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Stoichiometry
Part of chemistry that studies amounts of substances that are involved in reactions
Reaction stoichiometry
Deals with the mass relationships between reactants and products in a chemical reaction
Reaction stoichiometry is based on...
Chemical equations and the law of conservation of mass
Composition stoichiometry
Deals with the mass relationships of elements in compounds
Mole ratio
A conversion factor that relates the amounts of moles of any two substances involved in a chemical reaction
Mol->Mol
Type one
Mol->Mol->Gram
Type two
Gram->Mol->Mol
Type three
Gram->Mol->Mol->Gram
Type four
limiting reactant
A reactant that is totally consumed during a chemical reaction, limits the extent of the reaction, and determines the amount of product.
excess reactant
the reactant that is not completely used up in a chemical reaction
theoretical yield
the amount of product of interest that will be yielded in a chemical reaction as calculated using stoichiometry
actual yield
measured quantity
percent yield
(Actual Yield/Theoretical Yield) x 100%
Review formulas
See notes and practice problems
Composition Stoichietry
deals with the mass relationship of elements in compounds
Molar Mass
mass in grams of 1 mol of a substance
Percentage Yield
is the ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield, multiples by 100
mole
_______is the amount of a substance that contains the same number of particles as the number of atoms in 12 g of carbon-12. That would be 6.02 x 10 23 atoms.
amount of a substance
The mole is the SI unit for
counting
The mole is a _______ unit, like a dozen
Avogadro's Number
6.02 x 10²³ particles
1 mole of carbon -12 =
6.02 x 10 23 atoms of carbon
1 mole of any element =
6.02 X 10 23 atoms of that element
1 mole of any molecular covalent compound =
6.02 X 10 23 molecules of that compound
1mole of an ionic compound =
6.02 X 10 23 formula units of that compound
Reaction stoichiometry (mass moles and molecules)
first you need to recognize the coefficients in fron of compounds in a balanced equation represent the mole rations ( or …
1 example
gA> molA> molB> gB
another example
molecules A>molA>molB> gB
Gas stoichiometry (mass, moles, molecules, and volume)
As a basis for comparing different gases, we often measure their volumes at 1 atmosphere of pressure (1atm and O degrees Celsius) This set of conditions is called standard temperature and pressure or STP
Avogadro's law
equal volumes of ideal gases at the same temperature and pressure, contain the same number of particles or molecules
Two important implications of Avogadro's Law
all gases show the same physical behavior
Standard molar volume
22.4 liters
With a temperature change, the standard molar volume changes
At 1 atm pressure and ambient or room temperature (25 Degrees or 298 K), the volume of one mole of any gas is 24.8 L or 24.8 dm3
gA>molA> molB>liters B
Volume - mass and mass - volume gas stoichiometry
Density
amount of mass per units volume
Density of gas at STP
D = molar mass /standard molar volum