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Stoichiometry
Part of chemistry that studies amounts of substances that are involved in reactions
Why is stoichiometry important?
it helps us see relationships in chemical reactions
Molar Volume (22.4L/mol)
Conversion factor between mole and volume?
Molar Mass (FMg/mol)
Conversion factors between mole and mass?
Conversion factor between mole and particles?
Avogadro's number (6.02 x 10²³ particles/mol)
Mole ratio
A conversion factor that relates the amounts of moles of any two substances involved in a chemical reaction
Numbers in the more ratio
from the coefficients in the balanced equation
limiting reactant
A reactant that is totally consumed during a chemical reaction, limits the extent of the reaction, and determines the amount of product.
excess reactant
the reactant that is not completely used up in a chemical reaction
stoichiometric proportions
the amounts of reactants and/or products that are prescribed by the coefficients in the balanced equation.
theoretical yield
the amount of product of interest that will be yielded in a chemical reaction as calculated using stoichiometry
percent yield
(Actual Yield/Theoretical Yield) x 100%
6.02 x 10²³ particles
particles
atoms or molecules
mole
_______is the amount of a substance that contains the same number of particles as the number of atoms in 12 g of carbon-12. That would be 6.02 x 10 23 atoms.
Molar Mass
mass in grams of 1 mol of a substance
conversion factor
a fraction used to convert from one unit to another
Law of Conservation of Mass
During a chemical reaction, the total mass of the reactants is always equal to the total mass of the products
Gravimetric stoichiometry
Stoichiometry analysis involving mass
Gas stoichiometry
stoichiometry involving the volume of gases
Stoichiometry coefficients
a number that is placed in front of the formula of a product or a reactant of a chemical equation to indicate the mole ratio of the reactants and products in a reaction
Stoichiometry amounts
the exact molar amount of a reactant or a product, as predicted by a balanced chemical equation
limiting reagent
the reactant that is completely consumed during a chemical reaction, limiting the amount of product that is produced
actual yield
measured quantity
Percentage Yield
is the ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield, multiples by 100
competing reaction
a reaction that occurs at the same time as a principal reaction and consumes some of the reactants and/or products of the principal reaction
Chemical Stoichiometry
Chemical Arithmetic
Atomic mass
A relative mass determined by means of a standard
Mass Spectrometer
Device that magnetically separates charged ions according to their mass.
Atomic Mass Unit (AMU)
A unit of mass that describes the mass of an atom or molecule.
Average Atomic Masses
the most useful atomic masses
Mole (mol)
a # which equals 6.022x10^23
1 gram
= 1 mole amu
6.022x10^23
= 1 gram
Molar Mass of a Compound
Can be computed by adding together the atomic masses of the atoms in the formula
Atomic Masses Expressed in Grams
Will have the units of #g/1mol atoms
Molar Mass (Molecular Weight)
The mass in grams of one mole of molecules or formula units
Percent Composition of a Compound
Represents the mass percent of each element in a compound
empirical formula
simplest whole number ratio of each kind of atom in a particular compound
Molecular formula
not the lowest whole # but the actual #of atoms of each element present
Number of moles equation
Molar mass equation
Mass/ number of moles
Mr
Molar mass symbol
Composition equation
Total atomic mass of element/ Mr
Concentration equation
Number of moles of solute/ volume of solvent (dm3)
1 dm3
1000 cm3
m
symbol for wavelength
Molar volume
At 273°K one mole of a gas occupies 22.4 dm3
ideal gas law
law that states the math relationship of pressure (P), volume (V), temperature (T), the gas constant (R=0.0821), and the number of moles of a gas (n); PV=nRT.
p
momentum
n
amount of gas in moles
Universal gas constant
This is equal to 8.314 Joules per mole Kelvin, symbol R
T
The symbol for torque
Combined gas law
A combination of Boyle's Law, Charles' Law, and Lussac's Law. V1P1/T1=V2P2/T2 (people vomit over toilets)
273
Converting celsius to kelvin
For a gas at constant temperature and pressure, the volume is directly proportional to the number of moles of gas (at low pressures).
6.02 x 10^23
atomic theory
States that all matter is composed of atoms. These atoms cannot be created nor destroyed, and are rearranged during chemical reactions.
States of matter
Solid, Liquid and Gas
change of state
A physical change of a substance from one state to another
endothermic
A chemical reaction that absorbs heat
exothermic
A chemical reaction that releases energy
vaporization
change from a liquid to a gas
melting
change from a solid to a liquid
sublimation
a change directly from the solid to the gaseous state without becoming liquid
deposition
Change from a gas directly to a solid
Proust's law of constant composition
states that compounds have distinct properties and the same elemental composition by mass.
homogenous
_______ mixtures have both uniform composition and uniform properties though out the mixture.
heterogenous
__ mixtures have a non-uniform composition and hence their properties vary throughout the mixture.
matter
any substance that occupies space and has mass.
Anion
(-) Gain an electron
Cation
(+) Lose an electron
atom economy
looks at the level of efficiency of chemical reactions.
6.02 * 10^23
Relative atomic mass
This mass scale is based on the carbon -12 atom
relative molecular mass
determined by combining the relative atomic masses of the individual atoms of ions
aqueous solution
a solution in which water is the solvent
This states that at a specified temperature and pressure, equal volumes of (ideal) gases contain equal numbers of moles of particles.
Boyle's Law
A container holds 500. mL of CO₂ at 742 torr. What will be the volume of the CO₂ if the pressure is increased to 795 torr?
By-products
Unwanted products of a chemical synthesis or manufacturing process.
Charles' law
V₁/T₁ = V₂/T₂
Hydrate
A salt associated with a definite number of molecules of water.
ideal gas
a gas in which the particles undergo elastic collisions (when particles collide, there is no loss in the speed of the particles)
lattice
3D system of points designating the centers of components (atoms, ions, molecules) that makes up the substance
solubility
A measure of how much solute can dissolve in a given solvent at a given temperature.
Water of crystallisation
Water molecules that are incorporated into the crystal lattice of many inorganic salts when they crystallise from aqueous solution.
pressure (of gas)
the force exerted by a gas as it's particles collide with a surface.
standard temperature and pressure (STP)
0ºC/ 237 K- Temperature and 100kPa -Pressure
22.7 dm^3 mol^-1
Molar volume of an ideal gas
Charles's Law
A sample of oxygen occupies a volume of 160 mL at 91°C . What will be the volume of oxygen when the temperature drops to 0.00°C ?
Gay-Lussac's Law
a directly proportional relationship between the temperature and pressure of a confined gas
The combined gas law
the three gas laws, Charles's law, Boyle's law, and Gay-Lussac's law, are combined in one law.
The ideal gas equation
describes a relationship between pressure, volume, temperature, and the amount, in mol, of gas particles. pV=nRT
gas constant (R)
8.31 JK^-1 mol^-1
solution
A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances
molar concentration / molarity
(of a solution) is the amount (in mol) of a substance dissolved in 1dm^3 of solvent. 1dm^3=1 litre
quantitative analysis
laboratory techniques used to determine the amount or concentration of an analyte. The results are expressed as numerical values with units.
Volumetric Analysis
A technique for determining the amount of a certain substance by doing a titration.
titration
A laboratory procedure in which a substance in a solution of known concentration is reacted with another substance in a solution of unknown concentration in order to determine the unknown concentration.
Analyte
solution with unknown concentration in a titration (in flask)