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Level 58

Conjugation & Molecular Orbitals


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Dienes
compounds with two carbon-carbon double bonds
Conjugated
single, double, single, double pattern
Conjugation Advantages
more stable than unconjugated isomers
Gauche Dienes
conjugated dienes rotate about their single bonds
Molecular Orbitals
an orbital resulting from an overlapping of atomic orbitals when two atoms combine
molecular orbital (MO) theory
a more sophisticated model of bonding that can be applied equally successfully to simple and complex molecules
molecular orbital
electrons spread over all the atoms in a molecule and bind them all together
orbital approximation
we assume that the wavefunction of N, electrons in the molecule can be written as a product of one-electron wavefunctions
bonding orbital
molecular orbital that is lower in energy than any of the atomic orbitals from which it was formed
antibonding orbital
if it is occupied, the energy of the molecule is higher than for the two separated atoms
nonbonding orbital
occupation of this orbital neither stabilizes nor destabilizes the molecule
sigma orbitals
formed by allowing overlap between atomic orbitals that have cylindrical symmetry around the internuclear axis
pi orbitals
the remaining two 2p orbitals on each atom, which have a nodal plane containing the z-axis overlap
highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO)
the molecular orbital that is occupied last
lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO)
the next higher molecular orbital
((#bonding-#antibonding)/2)
bond order