Level 56 Level 58
Level 57

## Ignore words

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Enthalpy
Amount of energy within a system
heat of formation
standard values of heat used to find the heat of a reaction
calorimetry
using the change in temperature of water to measure the heat released from a reaction.
First law of thermodynamics
energy is not created nor destroyed
second law of thermodynamics
entropy of an isolated system always increases or remains constant
spotenaity
if a reaction does not require energy to start, it is spontaneous.
entropy
a change in randomness or complexity
third law of thermodynamics
The heat capacity of any substance goes to 0 as T→0 K. The entropy of equilibrium of any system will got to 0 as T→0 K. @ T=0 K, all processes occur with no change of entropy.
gibbs free energy
combines enthalpy and entropy with temperature to determine the sign of deltaG.
Charles Law
A law stating the ratio between the volume and temperature of a gas is constant. This means that the greater the temperature, the greater the volume and vice versa.
Boyles Law
A law stating inverse relationship exists between the volume and pressure of a gas. This means that the greater the pressure, the less the volume and vice versa.
moles and volume V1/n1=V2/n2
Dgas=PM/RT
density of gas Dgas
Partial pressures
In a gas mixture, the pressure that each gas exerts is called the partial pressure of a gas.
mole fraction
fraction of moles of a component gas in the total moles of a gas mixture (na/nt)=Xa
Pa=Xa*Ptotal
partial pressure with mol fract.
Kinetic molecular theory #1
molecules themselves take up no volume
Kinetic molecular theory #2
the average kinetic E or speed of molecules is directly related to the temperature.
Kinetic molecular theory #3
all collisions are elastic, no net loss of E.
Kinetic molecular theory #4
attraction between particles is negligible
Urms
sqrt(3RT/M) R=8.314, M is in kg
Diffusion
Ability of gases to mix
effusion
A process by which gas particles pass through a tiny opening