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Level 55

Hybridization & Molecular Orbitals


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paramagnetism
Attraction towards a magnetic field due to the presence of unpaired electrons
diamagnetism
Substances with no unpaired electrons are weakly repelled by a magnetic field
Valence bond theory
A covalent bond forms when orbitals of two atoms overlap and a pair of electrons occupy the overlap region
molecular orbital theory
(MO) - dont solve Schrödinger equation for a molecule directly, Instead you use a trial function, an "educated guess" as to what the solution might be
sigma bond
a bond formed when two atomic orbitals combine to form a molecular orbital that is symmetrical around the axis connecting the two atomic nuclei
pi bond
A bond formed when parallel p orbitals overlap creating two regions of electron density, one above and one below the internuclear axis.
hybrid orbitals
_______ are eqivalent because they have the same size, shape, and energy
bonding molecular orbital
molecular orbital lower in energy than parent orbitals
antibonding molecular orbitals
molecular orbital higher in energy than parent orbitals
sp
linear (180° angle)
sp²
planar triangle (120° angle)
sp³
tetrahedral (109.5° angle)
sp³d
trigonal bipyramidal (90° and 120° angle)
sp³d²
octahedral (90° angle)