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Electrons are treated as (molecules/waves)
When 2 atomic orbitals overlap, _______ molecular orbitals form
Constructive interference creates
bonding molecular orbital low in energy
Destructive interference creates
antibonding molecular orbital high in energy
In the general molecular orbital model for homonuclear diatomic molecules, there is assumed to be (…
Bases have a pH ABOVE/BELOW 7
Acids have a pH ABOVE/BELOW 7
unpaired electrons are attracted to magnetic field
no unpaired electrons- weakly repelled by magnetic field
What are molecular orbitals?
Regions of space around the atoms which either bond the atom together (bonding) or cause repulsion between the atoms (antibonding).
Which orbitals are lower in energy?
Bonding orbitals are lower in energy than antibonding orbitals.
Which orbitals do the electrons fill up first?
Up to two.
How many electrons which each molecular orbital hold?
Weighted linear sum of the valence atomic orbitals of all the atoms in a molecule. (Making molecular orbitals from valence orbitals)
an orbital resulting from an overlapping of atomic orbitals when two atoms combine
Bonding orbital that is lower in energy than atomic orbitals(Fill this first)
Sigma star 1s
Antibonding orbital that has a higher energy than atomic orbitals and tend to raise energy of the system.
# of bonding electons-# of antibonding electrons/2 *More electrons in antibonding orbitals leads to a less stable molecule, which means it is weaker and is less likely to exist.
Positive Bond Order
A positive bond order means that there are more electrons in bonding molecular orbitals than in antibonding molecular orbitals.
Negative Bond Order
A negative or zero bond order indicates that a bond will not form between the atoms ( Not stable=does not exist)
B2, C2, N2
Have the same Molecular orbital energy diagrams with pi on outside
Have same molecular orbital energy diagrams with sigma on the outside
Bond Order Trend
Increases when bond strength increases
same as homonuclear except the atomic orbitals have different binding energy.
Drawing Orbitals (MO)
the atomic orbital closest in energy will
Making MO diagrams for ions
Positive ion - remove the electron from the atom with the lower IE1
the electron is removed from the HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital)
the electron is added to the LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital)
A substance that is attracted to a magnetic field
A substance that is not attracted to a magnetic field
_______ are eqivalent because they have the same size, shape, and energy
linear (180° angle)
hybridization for alkyl amine nitrogens
1 pair of shared electrons
2 atoms share 4 electrons (2 pairs)
2 atoms share 6 electrons (3 pair)