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Level 54

Molecular Orbital Theory


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waves
Electrons are treated as (molecules/waves)
2
When 2 atomic orbitals overlap, _______ molecular orbitals form
Constructive interference creates
bonding molecular orbital low in energy
Destructive interference creates
antibonding molecular orbital high in energy
no; below
In the general molecular orbital model for homonuclear diatomic molecules, there is assumed to be (…
Above
Bases have a pH ABOVE/BELOW 7
Below
Acids have a pH ABOVE/BELOW 7
Paramagneticism
unpaired electrons are attracted to magnetic field
Diamagneticism
no unpaired electrons- weakly repelled by magnetic field
What are molecular orbitals?
Regions of space around the atoms which either bond the atom together (bonding) or cause repulsion between the atoms (antibonding).
Which orbitals are lower in energy?
Bonding orbitals are lower in energy than antibonding orbitals.
Bonding orbitals.
Which orbitals do the electrons fill up first?
Up to two.
How many electrons which each molecular orbital hold?
LCAO Orbital
Weighted linear sum of the valence atomic orbitals of all the atoms in a molecule. (Making molecular orbitals from valence orbitals)
Molecular Orbitals
an orbital resulting from an overlapping of atomic orbitals when two atoms combine
Sigma 1s
Bonding orbital that is lower in energy than atomic orbitals(Fill this first)
Sigma star 1s
Antibonding orbital that has a higher energy than atomic orbitals and tend to raise energy of the system.
Bond Order
# of bonding electons-# of antibonding electrons/2 *More electrons in antibonding orbitals leads to a less stable molecule, which means it is weaker and is less likely to exist.
Positive Bond Order
A positive bond order means that there are more electrons in bonding molecular orbitals than in antibonding molecular orbitals.
Negative Bond Order
A negative or zero bond order indicates that a bond will not form between the atoms ( Not stable=does not exist)
B2, C2, N2
Have the same Molecular orbital energy diagrams with pi on outside
O2, F2,Ne2
Have same molecular orbital energy diagrams with sigma on the outside
Bond Order Trend
Increases when bond strength increases
1s,2s,2pz
Sigma Orbitals
2px,2py
Pi Orbitals
Heteronuclear Diagrams
same as homonuclear except the atomic orbitals have different binding energy.
Drawing Orbitals (MO)
the atomic orbital closest in energy will
Making MO diagrams for ions
Positive ion - remove the electron from the atom with the lower IE1
IE1
the electron is removed from the HOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital)
EA
the electron is added to the LUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital)
Paramagnetic
A substance that is attracted to a magnetic field
Diamagnetic
A substance that is not attracted to a magnetic field
hybrid orbitals
_______ are eqivalent because they have the same size, shape, and energy
sp
linear (180° angle)
sp2
hybridization for alkyl amine nitrogens
sp3
SN=4
Single bond
1 pair of shared electrons
double bond
2 atoms share 4 electrons (2 pairs)
triple bond
2 atoms share 6 electrons (3 pair)
sp3d
SN=5
sp3d2
SN=6