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a molecule whose shape is triangular and in one plane; ex: BH3, BF3
3 dimensional shape showing one central atom with 4 atoms coming off of it. Tetra means four!
4 electron groups with lone pair
Bond Angle - 90°, 120° and 180°
4 bonds, 1 pair
Bond Angle - 90° and 180°
Bond Angle - 90° and 180°
5 Bonds, 1 pair
4 bonds, 2 pairs
Linear - sp
Trigonal planar - sp²
Tetrahedral - sp³
Trigonal bipyramidal - sp³d
Octahedral - sp³d²
_______ are eqivalent because they have the same size, shape, and energy
Coordination number (CN)
Number of atoms bound to atom of interest and number of lone pairs of electrons on the atom of interest
Electronic geometry and hybridization
CN + LP
(Valence electrons) - (# of bonds + # of electrons)
Want an even distribution of charge, want (-) on most electronegative atoms, (+) on least electronegative atoms.
Obey octet rule
C, N, O, F, Ne
One-half the shortest distance between nuclei of adjacent, individual atoms in a crystal of the element
One-half the shortest distance between nuclei of bonded atoms
Atomic size decreases
As the effective nuclear charge (Zeff) increases, outer electrons are pulled closer to the nucleus
Atomic size increases
As the principal quantum number (n) increases, the probability that outer electrons spend most of their time farther from the nucleus increases as well
Energy needed to remove an electron from the valence shell of an atom - how easily an atom can become an ion (COMPARE REACTIVITY OF A METAL)
Energy emitted upon addition of an electron - tendency to gain an electron (COMPARE REACTIVITY OF A NONMETAL)
Atoms having the same electronic configuration
A substance that can act as both an acid and a base
A measure of the size of an ion and is obtained from the distance between the nuclei of adjacent ions in a crystalline ionic compound
Bonding between metals and nonmetals
Bonding between nonmetals
Bonding between metals with electron pooling. Electrons are delocalized, moving freely throughout the entire piece of metal
The enthalpy change that accompanies the reverse of the previous equation- 1 mol of ionic solid separating into gaseous ions
A mathematical formula whose consequence is that negatively and positively charged particles attract each other and similarly charged species repel each other.
(cation charge*anion charge)/ (cation radius + anion radius)
# of bonding electons-# of antibonding electrons/2 *More electrons in antibonding orbitals leads to a less stable molecule, which means it is weaker and is less likely to exist.
Bond energy (BE)
The energy needed to overcome this attraction and is defined as the standard enthalpy change for breaking the bond in 1 mol of gaseous molecules
a measure of the ability of an atom in a chemical compound to attract electrons
A substance that is attracted to a magnetic field
Valence-shell electron-pair repulsion theory
To minimize repulsions, each group of valence electrons around a central atom is located as far as possible from the others.
A measure of molecular polarity
Valence bond theory
A covalent bond forms when orbitals of two atoms overlap and a pair of electrons occupy the overlap region
a bond formed when two atomic orbitals combine to form a molecular orbital that is symmetrical around the axis connecting the two atomic nuclei
A bond formed when parallel p orbitals overlap creating two regions of electron density, one above and one below the internuclear axis.