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Level 48

Covalent Bonds & Nomenclature

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Covalent bond
a bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons
molecular orbital
electrons spread over all the atoms in a molecule and bind them all together
bond length
the average distance between 2 bonded atoms
bond energy
energy required to break a bond
nonpolar covalent bond
a covalent bond in which the bonding electrons are equally attracted to both bonded atoms
polar covalent bond
a covalent bond in which a shared pair of electrons is held more closely by one of the atoms
a molecule or a part of a molecule that contains both positively and negatively charged regions
valence electron
an electron in the highest occupied energy level of an atom
Lewis Structure
_______ shows valence electrons
unshared pair
a nonbonding pair of electrons in the valence shell of an atom; also called lone pair
Single bond
1 pair of shared electrons
double bond
2 atoms share 4 electrons (2 pairs)
triple bond
2 atoms share 6 electrons (3 pair)
resonance structure
any one of two or more possible configurations of the same compound that have identical geometry but different arrangements of electrons
VSEPR theory
a theory that predicts some molecular shapes based on the idea that pairs of valence electrons surrounding an atom repel each other
2 Bonds
trigonal planar
a molecule whose shape is triangular and in one plane; ex: BH3, BF3
trigonal bent
Bond Angle - Less than 120°
3 dimensional shape showing one central atom with 4 atoms coming off of it. Tetra means four!
trigonal pyramidal
4 electron groups with lone pair
trigonal bipyramidal
Bond Angle - 90°, 120° and 180°
Bond Angle - 90°, 120° and 180°
Bond Angle - 90° and 180°
Bond Angle - 90° and 180°
square pyramidal
Bond Angle - 90° and 180°
Square Planar
4 bonds, 2 pairs